Literary Criticism Questions Rajshahi University

Rajshahi University Dept. of English Questions on Literary Criticism 2020-2013

B.A. (Honours) English Part III Examination 2020
Course 306 (Literary Criticism)
Full Marks: 90   Time: 4 Hours
[N.B. Question no. 6 carries 10 marks, and the others carry 20 marks each. Answer question no. 6 and FOUR others.]

1. a) The term ‘mimesis in the Poetics must be taken as referring not to some kind of aid or parallel to nature, but to the making of a likeness or image of nature. Discuss.
Or, b) How does Aristotle, in the Poetics, formulate the distinction between simple and complex plots?

2. a) Comment on how Wordsworth exalts the nature of poetry in Preface to Lyrical Ballads. Or,
b) How does Wordsworth emphasize the individualism of the poet in his Preface to Lyrical Ballads?

3. a) How does Coleridge explain his ideas of a poem and poetry itself in Biographia Literaria?
Or. b) How does Coleridge examine the distinction between imagination and fancy in his Biographia Literaria?

(4. a) In “Tradition and the Individual Talent”, Eliot’s conception of art focuses attention not upon the
poet but upon poetry. Elucidate. Or,
b) How does Eliot demonstrate the interdependence between a poet and his tradition in “Tradition and the Individual Talent?

5. a) “Intentional Fallacy” challenges the Romantic conception of literature as a vehicle of personal expression. Elucidate.
Or. b) Affective fallacy involves the error of evaluation of a text on the basis of its emotional effects on the reader. Expand on the statement.

6. Write short notes on any TWO of the following:
a) Pity and Fear
b) Depersonalization
c) Historical Sense
d) Recollection in Tranquility
e) Objective Correlative
f) Hubris

Rajshahi University
BA Honours Part Ill Examination 2019 : English
Course: 306 (Literary Criticism)
Time: 4 Hours Full Marks: 90

[NB: Question 6 carries 10 marks and the others carry 20 marks each. Answer question 6 and four others.]

  1. a) In the Poetics, Aristotle contends that the plot is the soul and first principle of tragedy. Or,
    b) For Aristotle, catharsis implies the purification or aesthetic depersonalization of our usually selfish emotions of pity and fear. Comment. 
  2. a) In Preface to Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth expatiates on the nature of the poetic process, the origin and purpose of poetry, and the language most suitable for it. Elucidate. Or,
    b) “There neither is nor can be any essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition.” Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer.
  3. a) How does Coleridge criticize Wordsworth’s theories in the Biographia Literaria? Or,
    b) How does Coleridge formulate his theory of imagination and its implications for the art of poetry in the Biographia Literaria?
  1. a) In “Tradition and the Individual Talent”, Eliot states categorically: “No poet, no artist of any sort, has his complete meaning alone.” Explain the implications of this statement. Or,
    b) How is Eliot’s view of poetry different from the Romantic poetic ideals?
  1. a) Why does Eagleton, in The Rise of English, draw our attention to the fact that the era of the academic establishment of English is also the era of high imperialism in England? Elucidate in the light of The Rise of English. Or,
    b) How does Eagleton differentiate between 18th and 19th-century views of literature in The Rise of English?
  2. Write short notes on any two of the following:
    a) A complex plot
    b) Esemplastic power
    c) Poetic diction
    d) F. R. Leavis
    e) Dante

BA Honours Part Ill Examination 2018
Department of English
Course: 306 (Literary Criticism)
Full Marks: 90          Time 4 hours

[Question no.8 carries 10 marks and others carry 20 marks each. Answer question no. 8 and four others. Question no. 2 is from 2016 syllabus]

  1.  a) Aristotle in Poetics defines poetry as imitation. Explore the implications of this definition. Or
    b) Discuss reversal, discovery and calamity as elements of a complex plot. What are the different kinds of discovery?
  2. a) Comment on Johnson’s evaluation of Shakespeare in his Preface to Shakespeare as a poet of nature. Or,
    b) How does Johnson defend Shakespeare’s violation of the unities of time and place? 
  3. a) How does Wordsworth glorify poets and poetry  in Preface to Lyrical Ballads? Or,
    b)  Wordsworth’s theory of poetry enunciated in the Preface is full of contradictions. Refute or justify this statement.
  4. a) Secondary imagination is “identical with the primary in the kind of its agency, and differing only in degree and in the mode of its operation.” Elucidate. Or,
    b) How does Coleridge analyse the originality of Wordsworth’s poetry in Biographia Literaria?
  5.  a) Why does Arnold, in The Study of Poetry, state categorically that poetry is a religious act? Or,
    b) Comment on Arnold’s evaluation of Pope and Dryden as poets in his The Study of Poetry.
  6.  a) How does Eliot clarify our understanding of the interaction between an individual poet and her/his “Tradition and the Individual Talent“? Or
    b)  In”Tradition and the Individual Talent” Eliot emphasises the necessity of differentiating the eperience of the man from the activity of the artist. Elucidate.
  7. a) Why does Eagleton attribute the growth of English studies in the later nineteenth century to the failure of religion? Or,
    b) English in England was “the offspring of the provincial petty bourgeoisie.” Explain how. 

a) ln Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth asserts that poetry is the expression or overflow of feeling, or emerges from a process of imagination in which feelings play the crucial part. Elucidate. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Poetic Truth and Historical Truth
b) Depersonalisation
c) Fancy
d) Hubris
e) Catalyst

BA (Honours) English P-III Examination 2017
Course: 306 (Literary Criticism)
Time: 4 hours     Full Marks: 90[Answer Question No. 8 and Four others. Q. each.) No. 8 carries 10 marks and the others carry 20 marks each.]

  1. a) What does Aristotle say in Poetics about the media, objects and manner of poetic imitation? Or,
    b) What, according to Aristotle, are the constituent elements of tragedy? Comment on the  interdependence of their relationship. 
  2. a) ln Preface to Shakespeare, the penetrating power of Johnson’s perception enables him to be an even-headed critic of Shakespeare. Comment. Or,
    b) “Shakespeare with his excellences has likewise faults….” What excellences and faults of Shakespeare does Johnson point out in his Preface to Shakespeare? 
  3. a) ln Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth asserts that poetry is the expression or overflow of feeling, or emerges from a process of imagination in which feelings play the crucial part. Elucidate. Or,
    b) Write a critique on Wordsworth’s four stages of poetic development. 
  4. a) What is Coleridge’s view of the language of poetry in Biographia Literaria? How is it diffferent from Wordsworth’s view in Preface to Lyrical Balalds? Or,
    b)  What, according to Coleridge, are the principal features of the secondary imagination? Comment on the relationship between the secondary imagination and the primary imagination. 
  5. a) “Poetry is not a turning-loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality, but an escape from personality.” How does Eliot validate this statement in “Tradition and individual Talent”? Or,
    b) Tradition involves the perception of the presentness of the past as well as the pastness of the present. Explain with reference to ‘Tradition and the Individual Talentu.
  6. (a) How does Arnold determine the principal features of a classic in The Study of Poetry? Or,
    (b) What is Arnold’s view of Chaucer as a poet?
  1. (a) How does Eagleton evaluate the achievement of the Scrutiny movement in the context of the growth of English studies in the early 1930s in “The Rise of English”? Or,
    (b) Why does Eagleton assert that the era of the academic establishment of English is also the era of high imperialism in England?

Write short notes on any two of the following:
(a) personal estimate and historic estimate
(b) esemplastic power
(c) pity and fear
(d)Shakespeare as a poet of nature
(e) poetic diction

BA Honours English Part III Examination 2016 
Course 306: Literary Criticism
Full Marks: 90   Time:4 Hours

[Question no. 8 carries 10 marks and Others carry 20 marks each. Answer question no. 8 and four others.]

1. a) Why does Aristotle, in Poetics,contend that the plot is the life-blood of tragedy?
b) Why does Aristotle, in Poetics, assert that the full tragic effect requires the union of the emotions of pity and fear?

2. a) Examine Johnson’s defense of Shakespeare’s mingling of the comic and the tragic in his Preface to Shakespeare. Or,
b)Johnson’s failure to appreciate the tragedies of Shakespeare can be attributed to his preconceived opinions and grievances. Discuss.

3. a)Do you support Wordsworth’s statement that “there neither is, nor can be, any essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition “? Give reasons for your answer. Or,
b) How, according to Wordsworth, is a poet different from and superior to ordinary men?

4. a) Why does Coleridge assert, in Biographia Literaria, that fancy and imagination “are two distinct and widely different faculties”? Or,
b) Biogaphia Literaria contains some of the most penetrating insights into the nature of Wordsworth’s poetry. Elucidate.

5. a)What does Eliot say in “Tradition and Individual Talent” about the relation between a present poet and poets of the past? Or,
b) For Eliot a poem is to be assessed by what it is rather than by what it says. Discuss.

6. a) Comment on Eagleton’s view of literature as expressed in “The Rise of English”. Or,
b) How, according to Eagleton, was English literature used as an alternative ideology in Victorian England?

7. a) How does Trilling demonstrate the relevance of the Freudian method of interpretation to literary studies in “Freud and Literature”? Or,
b) How does Trilling analyze the inadequacies of the Freudian method of interpreting literature in “Freud and Literature”?

8. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Simple and complex plots
b) Dramatic Unities
c) Spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings
d) Poetic Truth and Historical Truth


BA (Hons) English Part II Examination 2015
Course: 306 (Literary Criticism)
Time: 4 hours   Marks: 90
[N. B. Question No. 8 carries 10 marks others carry 20 marks each. Answer Question No 8 any four others.]

1. a) How does Aristotle examine the relationship between plot and character in the Poetics?
Or, b) Analyse Aristotle’s distinction between tragedy and epic. How does he prove that tragedy is the better of the two?

2. a) How does Johnson, in his “Preface to Shakespeare”, exalt Shakespeare as a poet of nature? Or,
b) In his criticism of Shakespeare, Johnson at once follows and deviates from the Neo-Classical
tenets. Elucidate.

3. a) “Preface to Lyrical Ballads” provides a theoretical justification for a new kind of poetry. Comment. Or,
b) Discuss Wordsworth’s views about the characters, incidents and situations to be treated in
poetry. To what extent do you agree with him?

4. a) How does Coleridge analyse the nature of Wordsworth’s poetry in Biographia Literaria? Or,
b) Analyse Coleridge’s definitions of the primary imagination and the secondary imagination.

5. a) Eliot in “Tradition and Individual Talent” appears to uphold both innovation and conservatism in
literary form. Show how. Or,
b) Critically discuss Eliot’s contention that poetry is “an escape from equation…an escape from

6. a) Comment on Eagleton’s main argument about the rise and role of English literary studies in “The Rise of English”. Or,
b) Discuss how Eagleton views the theoretical development in English up to the New Criticism phase.

7. a) In “Freud and Literature”, Trilling argues that psychoanalysis cannot determine the true meaning of a work of art, because there is no single meaning, Elucidate.
Or, b) How, according to Trilling, does Freudian psychology make poetry “indigenous to the very
constitution of the mind”?

8. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Catharsis
b) Poetic diction
c) Depersonalisation
d) Unity of action
e) Poetic justice

BA Honours English Part III Exanıination 2014
Course 306 : Literary Criticism
Time: 4 Hours   Full Marks: 90
[Question 6 carries 10 marks and others carry 20 marks each. Answer Question 6 and Four others.]

1. a) What does Aristotle say about the media, objects, and manner of poetịc imitation? Or,
b) Aristotle’s emphasis falls on the imitation in words of human action, passion and characters. Discuss.

2. a) According to Johnson, Shakespeare’s merits far outweigh his faults. Comment.
Or, b) Comment on Johnson’s evaluation of Shakespeare as a writer of tragedy and that of comedy.

3. a) Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria contains an outstanding important critique of Wordsworth’s poetry. Elucidate.
Or, b) In Biogruphia Literaria Coleridge provides a philosophical explanation of the distinction between fancy and imagination. Comment.

4. a) What, according to Wordsworth, are the four stages of the process of the poetic creation? Elaborate. Or,
b) Wordsworth denies the existence of any essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition. Discuss the implication of this denial.

5. a) How does Eliot explore the complex nature of the interaction between the impersonality of tradition and the personality of the artist in “Tradition and the Individual Talent”?
Or, b) Write an essay on Eliot’s theory of depersonalization with reference to his “Tradition and the Individual Talent”.

6. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Pity and Fear
b) Escmplastic power
c) The structure and the texture of a poem
d) Wordsworth’s views on metre.

BA Honours English Part III Examination 2013
Course 306 : (Literary Criticism)
Time: 4 hours  Full Marks: 90
[ N.B. Question- 6 carries 10 marks and others carry 20 marks each. Answer Questions 6 and four

1. a) What, according to Aristotle, are the constituent elements of tragedy? Comment on the interdependence of their relationship.
Or. b) For Aristotle, catharsis implies the purification or aesthetic depersonalisation of our selfish emotions. Elucidate.

2. a) Comment on Shakespeare as a poet of nature in the light of Johnson’s Preface to Shakespeare. Or,
b) Johnson’s praise for Shakespeare does not blind him to the poet of nature’s weaknesses. Discuss

3. a) What, according to toʻWordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads, are the basic stages of poetic composition? Discuss them in detail. Or,
b) According to Wordsworth, the most important function of poetry is, by its pleasurable resources, to foster and subtilise the sensibility, emotions, and sympathies of the reader. Elucidate

4. a) What, according to Coleridge, is the secondary imagination? Identify the hallmark of this specific faculty. Or,
b) What is Coleridge’s view of Wordswortli’s view of poetry, as expressed in Biographia Literaria?

5. a) What does Eliot mean by ‘tradition’ and historical sense’ in his “Tradition and the Individual Talent”? Or.
bj Write an essay on Eliot’s theory of impartiality in the light of your reading of “Tradition and the Individual Talent”.

6. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Poetic diction
b) Plot
c) Primary imagination
d) Anxiety of influence

Rajshahi University Dept. of English Syllabus on Literary Criticism 2020

  • Biographia Literaria by S. T. Coleridge
  • Tradition and the Individual Talent by T. S. Eliot
  • Preface to Lyrical Ballads by W. Wordsworth
  • Affective Fallacy and Intentional Fallacy (2020)
  • “The Rise of English” by Terry Eagleton (2019)

Department of English, RU, Written Test

University of Rajshahi
Department of English
Admission Test 2005

Full Marks: 50 Time: 1 hour

(N.B. Answer all questions. Marks for each question are shown in the margin.]

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions below it. Answer the questions in your own words as far as possible. You may use single words from the passage, but you must not use entire sentences from the passage to answer the questions. 

What does it mean to be free? Is freedom a matter of doing what happens to suit you, going where you like, thinking what you will? This you do anyhow. Merely to have independence, does that mean freedom? Many people in the world are independent, but very few are free. Freedom implies great intelligence, does it not? To be free is to be intelligent, but intelligence does not come into being by just wishing to be free; it comes into being only when you begin to understand your whole environment, the social, religious, parental and traditional influences that are continually closing in on you. But to understand the various influences – the influence of your parents, of your government, of society, of the culture to which you belong, of your beliefs, your gods and superstitions, of the tradition to which you conform unthinkingly—to understand all these and become free from them requires deep insight but you generally give in to them because inwardly you are frightened. You are afraid of not having a good position in life; you are afraid of what your priests will say; you are afraid of not following tradition; of not doing the right thing. But freedom is really a state of mind in which there is no fear or compulsion, no urge to be secure.


a) What, according to the author, is freedom?

b) How is freedom different from independence?

c) What do you understand by the phrase “the various influences?”

d) Why do people conform to tradition?

e) What is the central idea of this passage?

2. Write an essay on any ONE of the following:                                 25

 a) The worst storm you have seen and its aftermath.

 b) Grading standards in SSC and HSC examinations in Bangladesh.

  c) Uses and abuses of mobile phones.

University of Rajshahi
Department of English

Admission Test 2007

Time: 1 hour Full Marks: 60

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions below it:           30 marks 

            Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her.

           She was the youngest of the two daughters of a most affectionate, indulgent father, and had, in consequence of her sister’s marriage, been mistress of his house from a very early period. Her mother had died too long ago for her to have more than an indistinct remembrance of her caresses, and her place had  been supplied by an excellent woman as governess, who had fallen little short of a mother in affection.

          Sixteen years had Miss Taylor been in Mr Woodhouse’s family, less as a governess than a friend, very fond of both daughters/ but particularly of Emma. Between them, it was more the intimacy of sisters. Even before Miss Taylor had ceased to hold the nominal office of governess, the mildness of her temper had hardly allowed her to impose any restraint; and the shadow of authority being now long passed away, they had been living together as friend and friend very mutually attached, and Emma doing just what she liked; highly esteeming Miss Taylor’s judgment, but directed chiefly by her own.

          The real evils indeed of Emma’s situation were the power of having rather too much her own way, and a disposition to think a little too well of herself; these were the disadvantages which threatened alloy to her many enjoyments. The danger, however, was at present so unperceived, that they did not by any means rank as misfortunes with her.

          Sorrow came—a gentle sorrow—but not at all in the shape of any disagreeable consciousness. — Miss Taylor married. It was Miss Taylor’s loss which first brought grief. It was on the wedding-day of this beloved friend that Emma first sat in mournful thought of any continuance. The wedding over and the bride-people gone, her father and herself were left to dine together, with no prospect of a third to cheer a long evening….. 

           How was she to bear the change? — It was true that her friend was going only half a mile from them; but Emma was aware that great must be the difference between a Mrs. Weston only half a mile from them, and a Miss Taylor in the house; and with all her advantages, natural and domestic, she was now in great danger of suffering from intellectual solitude. She dearly loved her father, but he was no companion for her. He could not meet her in conversation, rational or playful. 

a) What title would you choose for this passage? Justify your choice.

b) What impression of Emma do you get from the passage?

c) What is Emma’s relationship with Miss Taylor?

d) What was the most important change in Emma’s life? How did she react to it?

e) What are the meanings of the following words? ( The words are in bold type in the passage above. You must write the English meanings of the words.)

(i) disposition; (ii) indulgent; (iii) restraint; (iv) unperceived; (v) mournful, (vi) solitude.

2. Write an essay on any ONE of the following topics:     30 marks

       a) Exploitation of women in advertisements;

       b) Positive aspects of overpopulation in a poor country;

       c) The need of education in a successful democracy.

University of Rajshahi
Department of English
Admission Test 2010-2011

Full Marks 60                                                                                                      Time: 1 hour

    Answer all questions. Marks for each question are shown in the margin.

  1. Write a composition on any ONE of the following:                   30

    a) A fearful experience in your life;

    b) The importance of school uniform

    c) Childhood books you remember most.

 2. Read the following poem and write what you understand of it.   20

    Gather rosebuds while you may, 
           Old Time is still a-flying:
And this same flower that smiles to-day
            To-morrow will be dying.
 The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,
            The higher he will be getting,
           The sooner will his race be run.

And nearer he’s to setting. 
       That age is best which is the first,
When youth and blood are warmer;
     But being spent, the worse, and worst
          Times still succeed the former.

 3. Translate the following into English:                                                10

আদিকাল থেকেই মানুষ নানাভাবে নিজেকে প্রকাশ করার চেষ্টা করে আসছে। পাহাড়ের গায়ে পাথরের উপরে ছবি আঁকা থেকে শুরু করে বর্তমানের নানারকম শিল্পকর্ম সবই মানুষের আত্মপ্রকাশের বিভিন্ন রূপ। এসবের মধ্যে কবিতা এমন একটি বিশ্বজনীন আত্মপ্রকাশের প্রচেষ্টা যা ভাষার মাধ্যমটিকে ব্যবহার করে থাকে। প্রাচীন কালের মানুষরাও কবিতার চর্চা করত, আবার এই যান্ত্রিক সভ্য জগতেও এর মূল্য কমেনি। ভাষার সাথে মানুষের সম্পর্ক যতদিনের কবিতার সাথে সম্পর্কও ততদিনেরই। 

University of Rajshahi
Department of English
Admission Test 2011-12 

Marks: 60                                                                                                          Time: 1 hour

 Answer all questions. Marks for each question are shown in the margin.

l. Write an essay on ONE of the following:                                                  25

a) Is obtaining a high grade more important than acquiring knowledge for a student?

b) Technology and students,

c) Our disappearing social values.

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: 20 

When the boy came to see me, I anticipated that he would seek my help for his admission into my department. He was really asking for my help but not about what I expected. He said very earnestly, ‘Could you please help me to persuade my parents that I should not go to university?’ 

The habits of a lifetime made me, almost automatically, start to remind him of the value of a liberal education. But when I glanced at him, I checked myself. Il was a safe bet that he had already had some experience in the great books, but had already been bored to death by Hamlet and Macbeth, and had rejected such studies. Who was I to urge him to have some more of these things stuffed down his throat? It turned out in the course of further conversation that what the boy wanted desperately to be was a dental technician. and that the thought of entering university was nothing less than revolting to him. His parents. I gathered, felt very strongly that he should have the blessing of higher education even though he found it a curse. 

I felt like saying to the boy. ‘Don’t come to university. Stick to your guns. Be the technician you want to be.’ But I was fair-minded. I pointed out the advantages of both sides, knowing that my department would probably settle the boy’s problem for him. One never knows what ripples one’s falling pebble will cause. A few days later, the boy’s father met me and said. My son wants to come and see you again. He says you made university sound very nice.’

a)  Give the meanings of the underlined words/sentences in the passage.

b)  What was unusual about the boy’s request?

c)  What was the conflict between the boy and his parents?

d)  What did the writer mean when he said that his department itself would probably solve the  boy’s problem for him?

3. Translate into English:                                                                   15            

ভোর বেলা মায়ের ডাকে ঘুম ভাঙ্গলো। তাকিয়ে দেখলাম মায়ের মুখে মিষ্টি হাসি। মা বললেন ‘পিঠে করেছি, খাবেত জলদি এস’। পিঠার কথা শুনে চোখ থেকে ঘুম পালিয়ে গেল। এক লাফে উঠে বসলাম। বিছানা ছেড়ে নামতেই নাকে এসে লাগলো পিঠার মিষ্টি গন্ধ। চোখ মুছতে মুছতে ঘরের বাইরে এলাম। দেখলাম মায়ের হাতে থালা ভর্তি পিঠা।

University of Rajshahi
Department of English
Admission Test 2012-13

Time: 1 hour                                                                          Full Marks: 60

Answer all questions. Marks for each question are shown in the margin.

1. Write an essay on ONE of the following:                                                 30              

a) Benefits of having good companions;

b) An opportunity you have wasted in your life;

c) Your idea of healthy food.

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions below it:  20

Recently I was unfortunate enough to be in a store when a robbery took place. I learned from that experience that a pointed gun makes people obey. I had stopped at the store on my way home from work to get a loaf of bread. I was at the check-out counter when a man standing nearby pulled out a gun and yelled, “Everybody on the floor and away from the cash register!” My first reaction was fear. Around me, people dropped to the floor. But I felt frozen where I stood. As I hesitated, the robber pointed his gun at me and yelled again, “On the floor!” Then I felt angry. I was bigger and stronger than he was. I was sure I could put him on the floor in a fair fight. But the gun, small enough to cradle the palm of my hand, was bigger and stronger than I was. I sank obediently to the floor. 

All of us watched silently as the robber scooped money out of the cash register into a paper bag. Then he ran out the door, jumped into a car that was waiting, and the car raced away. Everyone then stood up and started talking. A clerk called the police, who asked if anyone could describe the robber or the car. No one could. Then one man, blustering defensively, told the clerk just what I was thinking. “Listen. Tell them when a gun is pointed at me, it’s all I’m looking at. One look and I’m going to do whatever I’m told,”

a) What is the main idea of the passage? Where is the idea stated first and where is it repeated? b) Why did the writer feel angry?

c) What happened before and after the robbery?

d) Give the meaning, in English, of the words underlined in the passage.

3. Translate the following into English:                                            10

প্রাচীনকালে অনেক রাজারাণীও কবি-শিল্পীদের ভয় পেতেন। কারণ তারা খুব জনপ্রিয় ছিলেন এবং জনমতকে প্রভাবিত করতে সক্ষম ছিলেন। এরকম একজন রাজা ও রানী ছিলেন ইংল্যান্ডের রাজা প্রথম এডওয়ার্ড এবং তার রানী এলেনর। তাদের ভয়ে একজন কবি প্রতিবাদ হিসেবে পাহাড় থেকে লাফিয়ে পড়ে আত্মহত্যা করেন। এই ঘটনা নিয়ে একটা কবিতাও লেখা হয়েছিল।

Rajshahi University
Department of English
Admission Test 2015-2016

Time: 1 hour                                                                         Full marks: 50

Read the following passage and answer the questions below it:

About fifty years ago the notion of English as a global language was merely a theoretical prediction which is still diffuse and vague. However, realities have created it as a real language at the present time. People in every part of the world feel its urgent role in their life: for academic purposes,  for business goals and for other purposes. English is spoken by people throughout the world as their first, second and foreign language. Indeed, English is now a world language.

English as a world language is not merely an international language. The notion of international language can be understood as a language which is used in any international communication Which involves people from two or more countries. Japanese is an international language, but it is not a global language. Japanese is often used by people who communicate with Japanese people, usually in the area in which Japanese people, traditional political power and/or business are dominant. Japanese, however, is not used in a great number of other contexts. The same thing applies to Arabic. As an international language, Arabic is not only used in the area in which Arab people are dominant, but it is employed when people communicate with Arabs in other places. However, Arabic is not used when there is no connection with Arabs. This is different from the fact of English as a global language-English is not used when people communicate with English speakers, it is used by people of different first languages. It is not only applied when people speak to English people, but also When people from different nations meet. English is the most widely spoken language in very different contexts in the world. Therefore, English is not only an international language but also a global language. The global language can be spoken as either the first, second or foreign language. The prominent characteristic of a global language is that it is the most widely used language in communication in most places in the world. People feel the need to master it for their life.

There are some countries where people speak English as their first language. USA, Canada, Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and several Caribbean countries are among the thirty territories that use English as their first language. However English does not gain its special status as a global language merely by being spoken by people in those countries; it becomes a world language because people in other countries give a special credence to English, even though they do not speak it as a first language-

a) How does the author distinguish between an international language and a global language?

b) How, according to the passage, is English both an international and a global language? 

c) When does a language attain a global status? 

d) Give contextual meanings in English of the underlined words in the passage.

e) Translate the following sentences from the passage into Bangla 

Japanese is often used by people who communicate with Japanese people. usually in the area in which Japanese people tradition, political power and/or business are dominant, Japanese, however, is not used in a great number of other contexts. The same thing applies to Arabic.

 2. Write a composition (in not more than 600 words) on any one of the following topics:  30

a) Your vision of future Bangladesh

b) Fears and anxieties of the young generation of your time

Rajshahi University
Department of English
Admission Test 2016

Time: 1 hour                                                                                                    Full Marks: 50

Figures in the Right margin indicate marks. Answer both the questions.

1. Read the passage below and answer the questions following it:           5×5=25

Throughout the early sixties of the last century, Rajshahi was a pathetically provincial little town. It was so small, in fact, that it did not have cars on its streets. In the whole of Rajshahi, there were around three or four private cars and two or three rental cars that were only rarely seen on the streets. Some months after our arrival at Rajshahi we went to visit my mother’s ancestral house in Natore in a car rented from the local Motor Union. The car appeared to date from the nineteen-twenties; it was a convertible with a canvas hood and spoked wheels, and on the 30-mile journey to Natore it had to stop twice to cool its engine. What Rajshahi had on the roads in abundance were “tom-toms”, the little one-horse-drawn carts that clip-clopped through the streets, and whose little horses left dung wherever they went. When it dried and pounded to dust, it flew through the air and gave a distinctive smell to the atmosphere. There were cycle-rickshaws too, of course. Some of the boys of my neighbourhood made up a game of rickshaw number-plate spotting and the highest number they spotted, they said, was 600. This was perhaps the highest number of rickshaws that Rajshahi, with its then sparse population, could support. Both the number of rickshaws and people in Rajshahi multiplied, however, quite quickly; so much so that some years later number-plate spotting as a hobby became outdated.

  a. On what criteria is Rajshahi called a “provincial little town” in the           passage?

  b. What idea does the writer convey by mentioning the journey to             Natore?

  c. What does the activity of “number-plate spotting” imply?

  d. Give the meanings (in English) of the words in bold in the passage and  make a  sentence of your own with each of them.

   e. Translate into Bangla the first three sentences of the passage.

2. Write an essay on “Facebook Friendship”                                   25


Rajshahi University
Department of English
Admission Test 2017

Time: 1 hour                                                                     Full Marks: 50

 (Figures in the right margin indicate full marks. Answer both the questions.)

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions below it:              25

To put it bluntly, English cannot claim a dominant position of any kind in relation to the status of Bangla in Bangladesh. Although there are some other languages and cultures in Bangladesh, it is predominantly a monoculture and a monolingual country and it does not have many languages competing for ascendency, English—the language as well as its ancillaries — is of course subordinate to Bangla and the national culture. What this means for everyone in Bangladesh is that the study of everything that relates to Bangladesh is far more important than the study of English. If English is at all important in the country, it is so for the study of a host of other things and subjects, and it is more important in the sciences than in the humanities. In other disciplines, it is of course a mere instrument, a tool, and not much else. No scientist or economist ever needs to bother about reading a Mill or a Milton to develop a prose style they require for professional purposes. And indeed that is how most of our academics use English; they learn the language only to be able to research and to produce scholarly papers in their respective research areas. 

(a) Does the passage discourage the study of English? Justify your answer.

(b) Why is English in Bangladesh subordinate to Bangla?

(c) How would you explain the idea of a language as ‘ a tool’? 

(d) Give the contextual meanings in English of the words in bold and make a sentence of your 
    own with each of them.

(e) Translate the first three sentences of the passage into Bangla.

2. Write a composition on any one of the following:                        25

(a) Human crises in the present world

(b) Your strengths and weaknesses as an individual


Rajshahi University
Department of English
First Year Admission Test 2018-19

Time: 1 hour                      Full Marks: 50 

[Marks for each question are shown in the margin. Answer both the questions]

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions below it:             5×5=25

Before the invention of reading and writing, people lived in an environment in which they struggled to survive against natural forces, animals and other humans. To survive, preliterate people developed skills that grew into cultural and educational patterns. For a particular group’s culture to continue into the future, people had to transmit it, or pass it on, from adults to children. The earliest educational processes involved sharing information about gathering food and providing shelter, making weapons and other tools, learning language and acquiring the values, behaviour and religious rites or practices of a given culture.

Through direct informal education, parents and elders taught children the skills and roles they would need as adults. These lessons eventually formed the moral codes that governed behaviour. Since they lived before the invention of writing, preliterate people used an oral tradition or storytelling to pass on their culture and history from one generation to the next. By using language, people learned to create and use symbols, words or signs to express their ideas. When these symbols grew into pictographs and letters, human beings created a written language and made a great cultural leap to literacy.

(a) What does the passage say about the role of education?

(b) How did environment determine the objects of educational processes? 

(c) How did an oral tradition lead to the development of a written language?

(d) Translate the first two sentences of the second paragraph into Bangla.

(e)  Give the meanings in English) of the underlined words and make a sentence of your own  with each of them.

2. Write an essay on any one of the following:                                             25

(a) The experience of overcoming a phobia

(b) First Impressions: To value or not to value? 

(c) You after 30 yea

Dhaka University C Unit Admission Test Written Part Suggestion

01. Globalization :

Globalization is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies and governments worldwide. Globalization has accelerated since  the 18th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology.  This increase in global interactions has caused a growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas and culture.

02. Global village :

The world is viewed as a community in which distance and isolation have been dramatically reduced by electronic media and easy transportation.  Transnational commerce,  migration and culture alters the global coexistence in such a community. 

03. Inequality / Social  Inequality / Social Discrimination / Social Segregation :  The uneven and unfair distribution of resources, opportunities and rewards that increase power, prestige and wealth for individuals or groups in the social system. It is done based on mainly one’s power, religion,  kinship,  prestige,  race, ethnicity,  gender, age,  sexual orientation and class. 

04. Social Inclusion / Social Integration: Social inclusion is the process of improving the terms on which individuals and groups take part in society – improving the ability, opportunity,  and dignity of those disadvantaged on the basis of their identity. Enhancing access to resources, voice, and respect of rights, especially for the disadvantaged, play a significant role in social inclusion/integration. 
05. Social Exclusion / Social Disintegration: Social exclusion/disintegration / Marginalisation is the process in which individuals or groups are blocked from various rights, opportunities, and resources that are normally available to others, and which are fundamental to social integration and observance of human rights within that particular group.

06. GDP : Gross domestic product (GDP)is total market value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy during a specified period of time. It includes all final goods and services—that is, those that are produced by the economic agents located in that country regardless of their ownership and that are not resold in any form. It is used throughout the world as the main measure of output and economic activity. (Britannica)

07. Inflation : Inflation, in economics, is collective increases in the supply of money, in money incomes, or in prices. Inflation is generally thought of as an inordinate rise in the general level of prices, Which results in a decrease of the currency’s value to purchase- a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. (from Britannica)

08. Foreing Direct Investment : A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a firm or individual in one country into business interests located in another country. Generally, FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets in a foreign company. (investopedia)

09. Recession : A recession is a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. A recession begins just after the economy reaches a peak of activity and ends as the economy reaches its trough. Between trough and peak, the economy is in an expansion. Expansion is the normal state of the economy; most recessions are brief and they have been rare in recent decades. (national Bureau of Economic Research, USA)

10. Mixed Economy : A mixed economic system is a system that combines aspects of both capitalism and socialism. A mixed economic system protects private property and allows a level of economic freedom in the use of capital, but also allows for governments to interfere in economic activities in order to achieve social aims. (Investopedia)

11. Capitalism : Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in capital and financial markets whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.

12. Competition/Competitiveness : In economics, competition is a scenario where different economic firms are in contention to obtain goods that are limited by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, promotion and place.  In classical economic thought, competition causes commercial firms to develop new products, services and technologies, which would give consumers greater selection and better products.

13. Innovation : Innovation is a process by which a domain, a product, or a service is renewed and brought up to date by applying new processes, introducing new techniques, or establishing successful ideas to create new value.  Innovations can involve simply taking something that has long been utilized or enjoyed in one market and making a new combination.

14. Stock Market : A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange, as well as stock that is only traded privately, such as shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms.

15. Microcredit :

16. Strategy :

17. Business Process Outsourcing :

18. Digital Marketing :

19. Digital Currency :

20. Cryptocurrency :

21. Blockchain

English For Today HSC: Eating Habit and Hazards Word Meanings

Read Word Meanings of the chapter ‘Eating Habit and Hazards‘ in the link below :

Summary of ‘The Luncheon’ by William Somerset Maugham

Eating Habit and Hazards Word Meanings :

Word Synonyms
1. Habit (noun 

স্বভাব, অভ্যাস 

Antonym: inexperience, dishabituation

practice, custom, pattern, routine, style, convention, policy, way, manner, mode, norm, tradition, rule, tendency, propensity, inclination, bent, proclivity, proneness, disposition, predisposition 
2. Hazards ( noun )

বিপত্তি, বিরুপ প্রভাব, ঝুকি


Antonym: security, protection 

danger, risk, peril, threat, menace,difficulty, problem, pitfall, jeopardy, perilousness, endangerment, imperilment
3. Playwright ( noun )



Antonym: Not Applicable

dramatist, dramaturgist 
4. Lucid ( noun )

সহজবোধ্য,  স্পষ্ট 

Antonym: confused, delirious, incoherent, vague 

transparent, clear, crystalline, colourless, diaphanous, immaculate, coherent 
5. Admire ( verb )

প্রশংসা করা, তারিফ করা 

Antonym: condemn, vilify, defame, disapprove of, loathe

applaud, praise, commend, approve of, favor, appreciate respect, hold in high esteem, 

compliment, speak highly of

6. Luncheon ( noun )

মধ্যাহ্নজোজ, দুপুরেরখাবার 


Antonym: Not Applicable

lunch, a formal lunch 
7. Humor ( noun )

মেজাজ, কৌতুকরস 

Antonym: seriousness 

mood, temper, disposition, temperament, state of mind 


8.Irony ( noun )

পরিহাস, বিদ্রুপ 


Antonym: sincerity, logic 

sarcasm, sardonicism, cynicism, sharpness, acerbity, acid, bitterness, trenchancy, mordancy, 
9. Lavish (adjective)

অতিরিক্ত খরচ করার প্রবনতা, টাকা উড়ানো, উদারচিত্ত


Antonym: meager, frugal, mean, scant 

sumptuous, luxurious, luxuriant, costly, opulent, grand, elaborate, splendid, rich, regal, ornate, expensive
10. Expense ( noun, verb )

খরচ, ব্যায় 

Antonym: Income 

cost, price, expenditure charge, outlay, fee, tariff, toll, levy, payment, amount, rate 
11. Sight (noun)

দর্শন, নজর, দৃষ্টি

Antonym: oversight, invisibility

eyesight, vision, come into view, visual perception, observation
12. Beckon ( noun, verb )

ইশারা, সংকেত দেয়া, ইঙ্গিতকরা 

Antonym:Not Applicable

gesture, signal, wave, gesticulate, make a gesture, motion, nod, call
13.Interval ( noun )


Antonym: continuity

intermission, interlude, entr’acte, interim, break, recess, pause, gap
14. Mention ( verb )

উল্লেখ করা 

, Antonym: conceal ,hide 

allude to, refer to, touch on, hint at, raise, introduce
15. Hardly ( adverb )

কদাচিৎ, কষ্টকর, কঠিন ভাবে

Antonym: fully, regularly 

scarcely, barely, faintly, narrowly, slightly, rarely, little
16. Recognize ( verb )

চিনতে পারা , স্বিকার করা 


Antonym: forget,overlook 

identify, acknowledge, 

remember, recall, recollect, call to mind 

17. Address (verb, noun)

সম্বোধন, পিরচয় করা 


Antonym: avoid 

evoke, summon, accost , speech, location
18. Brightly ( adverb )



Antonym: palely 

glaringly, lively 
19. Overlook ( verb )

উপেক্ষা করা, মার্জনা করা, উচুহতে পর্যাবেক্ষণ করা 

Antonym: spot, notice,punish 

ignore, miss, fail to notice, fail to observe, leave unnoticed, forgive, observe 


20. Cemetery ( noun )

গরস্থান , সমাধিকেন্দ্র

Antonym: Not Applicable

graveyard, churchyard, burial ground, garden of remembrance, bone-yard, tomb 
21. Barely ( adverb )

কোনমতে, কেবলমাত্র 


Antonym: easily 

hardly, scarcely, just, only just, narrowly, by a very small margin, by the narrowest of margins 
22. Presently ( adverb )


Antonym: pastly 

at present, currently, at this moment, nowadays, these days, today
23. Afterwards (adverb) 

ভবিষ্যতে, পরে 


Antonym: before 

later, later on, subsequently, then, after that, following that, next, eventually, after a period of time, in due course
24. Beyond ( preposition ) 

বহুদূরে, ব্যতীত, দূরে

Antonym: near, close, within 

far, outside, the farther side of, behind, past, after, out of
25.Flatter ( verb )

তোষামোদ করা, চাটুকারিতা করা, পটানো, পটে যাওয়া 


Antonym: disparage, disdain 

eulogize, false praise, persuade
26. Modest ( adjective )



Antonym: immodest, impolite, boastful, conceited, grand ,grandiose, flamboyant 

polite, decent, gentle, moderate, unpretentious, humble, unpresuming, unostentatious, free from vanity, keeping, 

shy, bashful, timid, reserved, retiring, media-shy, reticent, quiet, coy, blushing, meek, docile, mild, apologetic 

27. Cut out ( verb )

বাদ দেওয়া 


Antonym: add 

exclude, eliminate, rule out, 
28. Correspondence (noun )

পত্র বিনময় করে

Antonym: Not Applicable

29. Appearance (noun)

: আবির্ভাব, উপস্থিতি 


Antonym: disappearance, departure 

letter, mail, post, communication, similarity 

advent, presence, arrival, emergence, look, countenance, mien

30. Imposing ( adjective )

মনোরম , প্রতারণাপূর্ণ 

Antonym: unimposing, modest 

deceptive, insidious, impressive in appearance, eye-catching, dramatic, spectacular, staggering, stunning, awesome, awe-inspiring, remarkable, formidable,splendid, grand, majestic, august, lofty, stately, dignified, resplendent 
31. Rather (adverb) 

বরং, ইহা অপেক্ষা বরং 

Antonym: Not Applicable

more precisely, to be precise, to be exact, correctly speaking
32. Impression ( noun )

প্রভাব, ছাপ 

Antonym: Not Applicable

impact, influence, mark, reputation, suspicion, apprehension
33. Talkative ( adjective )


Antonym: taciturn, reticent 

chatty, loquacious, garrulous, voluble, conversational, gossipy, chattery, chattering,communicative 
34. Inclined (adjective)

উৎসাহি, আগ্রহপূর্ণ, ইচ্ছুক 

Antonym:disinclined, unlikely 

disposed, desirous, enthusiastic, minded, willing, ready, prepared predisposed
35. Attentive ( adjective )



Antonym: inattentive,inconsiderate 

alert, awake, watchful, observant, perceptive, percipient, aware, noticing, heedful, mindful, vigilant, on guard, on the qui vive
36. Startle ( verb )

হকচকিয়ে উঠা, চমকানো, আঁতেক ওঠা 

Antonym: put at ease 

surprise, frighten, scare, alarm, shock, amaze, perturb, unsettle, agitate, disturb, disconcert, disquiet 
37. Anticipate ( verb )

ধারণা করা , অনমুান করা 


Antonym: lag behind, dread

expect, foresee, predict, forecast, prophesy, foretell, contemplate the possibility of, allow for, be prepared for 
38. Generously ( adverb )

উদার ভাবে 


Antonym: greedily

kindly, magnanimously, benignantly
39. Caviare ( noun )

একপ্রকার মাছের ডিম 


Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable
40. Sink (p. Sank) [verb ]

চমকানো, ধক ধক করা, ডুবে যাওয়া 


Antonym: float 

succumb, immerse, drown 


41. Afford (verb)

সামর্থ থাকা 

Antonym: unbearable 

bear, sustain, stand, carry
42. Unwise (adjective)

মুর্খতাপূর্ণ, অবিবেচক, বোকামি 

Antonym: wise, sensible 

foolish, thoughtless, injudicious, goofy, ill-advised, imprudent 
43. Promptly (adverb) 

চটপট , তৎক্ষণাৎ 


Antonym: late , slowly 

instantaneously, quickly, swiftly, rapidly, speedily, fast, as soon as possible, ASAP, expeditiously 

at once, immediately, straight away, right away, without delay, without hesitation, forthwith, directly, instantly, instaby unhesitatingly 

44. Proceed (verb)

অগ্রসর হওয়া, চলেত থাকা 

Antonym: stop, discontinue 

continue, begin, make a start, get going, move, go on, make progress
45. Digestion ( noun )

হজম, পরিপাক 


Antonym: indigestion

dissolution,assimilation, absorption, ingestion
46. Hospitable (adjective) 

অতিথিপরায়ন, বন্ধুত্বপূর্ণ

Antonym: inhospitable, unfriendly

welcoming, friendly, congenial, genial, sociable, convivial, cordial, gracious, amicable, amenable, helpful, accommodating, neighbourly, warm-hearted, kind, kind-hearted, generous, liberal, bountiful, open-handed 
47. Effusive ( adjective )

প্রবল ভাবে আবেগ প্রকাশ


Antonym: restrained 

gushy, unrestrained, unreserved, extravagant, fulsome, demonstrative, lavish, enthusiastic, exuberant, ebullient
48. Amicable ( adjective )


Antonym: unfriendly, hostile 

friendly, good-natured, cordial, hospitable, courteous, polite, easy-going, neighbourly, brotherly, fraternal, harmonious, cooperative, civilized 
49.Trifle (noun)

তুচ্ছ পরিমাণ, অল্প


Antonym: great amount, crucial 

unimportant, unimportant thing, trivial matter, trivial thing, triviality, matter of no importance, thing of no importance, bagatelle, inessential
50. Pale ( adjective )

ম্লান, বিবর্ন, ফেকাশে


Antonym: bright, vivid 

faded , flabby, discoloured, bleak, white, tarnished 
51. Casually ( adverb )

উদ্দশ্যহীনভাবে, আকস্মিক ভাবে

Antonym: carefully 

vainly, miraculously, without purpose
52. Forbidden (adjective)


Antonym: permitted, legal 

prohibited, banned, debarred, vetoed, not allowed, disallowed, illegal, impermissible, not acceptable, unauthorized, unsanctioned 
53. Gaily ( adverb )

ফূর্তিতে, সনন্দে

Antonym: miserably, sombrely,anxiously 

merrily, cheerfully, cheerily, happily, joyfully, joyously, light-heartedly, blithely, jauntily, gleefully, with pleasure 
54. Task ( noun )

কর্মভার চাপানো, কাজ 

Antonym: leisure

job, duty, chore, charge, labour, assignment, function, engagement, exercise. 
55. Wave ( verb, noun )

ইশারা করা, ঢেউ 


Antonyms: Not Applicable

beckon, sign, gesture 
56. Gesture ( noun )

অঙ্গিভঙ্গি করা 

Antonym: Not Applicable

signal, posture, sign, hint, make a gesture, motion, wave, indicate, gesticulate
57. Conversation ( noun )

আলাপ আলোচনা , কেথোপকথন 

Antonym: speech, oration

discussion, colloquy, talk, chat, gossip, head-to-head, exchange, dialogue, parley, conference 
58. Horribly ( adverb )

ভয়াবহ, ভয়ংকরভাবে


Antonym: pleasantly, slightly 

dreadfully, terribly 
59. Often (adverb )


Antonym: seldom, rarely, never

frequently, many times, many a time, on numerous occasions, a lot, in many cases,repeatedly, again and again, time and again, over and over again, regularly, recurrently, continually, usually, habitually, commonly, generally, ordinarily,
60. Asparagus (noun) 

শতমূলী, সবজি বিশেষ 


Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable


61. Giant (adjective, noun) 

দৈত্য আকৃতির, বিশাল, 


Antonym: tiny, miniature 

huge, gigantic, monstrous, prodigious, demon
62. Watered (verb) 

লালা ঝড়া 

Antonym: plain

dribble​, slaver, water 
63. Priest ( noun )

ধর্মজাজক, পন্ডিত 


Antonym: layman

clergyman, clergywoman, minister of religion, cleric, ecclesiastic, pastor, parson, churchman, father 
64. Splendid (adjective)


Antonym: modest, unimpressive, ordinary, indistinguishable, ,dreadful, awful, horrible 

magnificent, sumptuous, grand, impressive, superb, spectacular, resplendent, opulent, luxurious, palatial, deluxe, rich, fine, costly, expensive, lavish, ornate, gorgeous, glorious, dazzling, elegant, handsome, beautiful 
65. Tender ( adjective )

কচি, কোমল 

Antonym: hardy, hard-hearted, callous, unsympathetic, tough

delicate, soft, loving, affectionate fragile, breakable, frail 
66. Least ( adjective )


Antonym: greatest, most 

slightest, smallest, minimum, minimal, minutest, tiniest, littlest
67. Sighed ( verb )

দীর্ঘশ্বাস ফেলা 


Antonym:Not Applicable

Not Applicable
68. Panic (noun)

আতঙ্ক, ভয় 


Antonym: calm, calmness, relax 

fear, alarm, anxiety, nervousness, fright, trepidation, dread, terror, horror, agitation, hysteria, consternation, perturbation, dismay
69. Seize ( verb )

পাকড়াও করা, বাজেয়াপ্ত করা, গ্রাস করা 

Antonym: relinquish, liberate, release, ransom

grab, grasp, snatch, grip, clutch, take, pluck, arrest, occupy, confiscate 
70. Appear ( verb )

হাজির হওয়া 

Antonym: disappear, vanish

come, arrive, visible, come into view, come into sight, materialize
71. Enormous ( adjective )

প্রচুর, বৃহদাকার 


Antonym: tiny, small 

huge, vast, extensive, expansive, broad, wide
72. Succulent (adjective)



Antonym: dry, shrivelled, unappetizing

juicy, luscious, lush, fleshy, pulpy, soft, tender, fresh, flavoursome, flavourful, tasty, delicious, delectable, palatable, toothsome 
73. Appetizing (adjective) 

মখুেরাচক, ক্ষুধা উদ্রেককারী 


Antonym: bland, unappealing, unappetising 

mouth-watering, inviting, tempting, tasty, succulent, delicious, palatable, delectable, flavoursome, luscious, toothsome 
74. Tickle ( verb )

কুতুকুতু দেয়া, আলতো স্পর্শ করা 


Antonym: hurt, annoy

lightly touch, kittle, lightly prod, chuck
75. Nostril ( noun )

নাক এর ছিদ্র


Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable
76. Faintly ( adverb )

দূর্বল ভাবে


Antonym: strongly, brightly, loudly,extremely 

indistinctly, softly, weakly, feebly 
77. Ingratiating (adjective, verb)

তোষামুদে, উৎসাহে 

Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable
78. Blush ( noun )

লজ্জ্বারূপ হওয়া, আরক্তিম হওয়া 

Antonym: Not Applicable

flush, reddening, high colour, colour, rosiness, bloom
79. Peaches ( noun )

এক ধরনের ফল 


Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable
80. Landscape ( noun )

প্রাকৃতিক ভূদৃশ্য 

Antonym: portrait

scenery, countryside, topography, country, land, terrain, environment outlook, view, panorama 


81. Miserable (adjective)

শোচনিয়, করুণ 


Antonym: happy,contented, luxurious,glorious, lovely 

unhappy, sad, sorrowful, dejected, depressed, downcast, downhearted, despondent, despairing, disconsolate, wretche, gloomy, dismal, melancholic, low-spirited, mournful, woeful, woebegone, doleful, forlorn, crestfallen, broken-hearted, heartbroken, inconsolable, luckless, grief-stricken
82. Inadequate (adjective)



Antonym: adequate, sufficient,competent

insufficient, not enough, deficient, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, sparse, too little, too few, short 
83. Tip ( noun )



Antonym: Not Applicable

pourboire , point, top
84. Rested ( verb )

:নিশ্রান্ত, নিদিষ্ট দিকে তাকােনা 


Antonym: spent,tried

placed, refreshed 
85. Instant (adjective)


Antonym: delayed, long-term 

immediate, instantaneous, prompt, direct, swift, speedy, rapid, quick, expeditious, lightning, sudden, precipitate, abrupt 
86. Mean ( adjective )

নিকৃষ্ট , কৃপণ, হীনমর্যাদাপূর্ণ 


Antonym: generous, extravagant, munificent, palatial 

miserly, niggardly, close-fisted, parsimonious, penny-pinching, cheese-paring, ungenerous, penurious, illiberal, avaricious, Scrooge-like 
87. Retorted (verb) 

প্রতিশোধ মলূক বা চতুর উত্তর দেওয়া 


Antonym: Not Applicable

revenge,pay back 
88. Humorist ( noun )

রিসক, কৗতুক পূর্ণ 

Antonym: Not Applicable

comic writer, comedian, comedienne, joker, jokester, clown, jester
89.Cab (noun) 

ট্রাক্সি বা ঘোড়ার গাড়ি 


Antonym: Not Applicable

cart , carriage, taxi
90. Vindictive (adjective)
Antonym: forgiving 
vengeful, revengeful, avenging, unforgiving, grudge-bearing, resentful, ill-disposed, implacable, unrelenting, acrimonious, bitter, spiteful, mean-spirited, rancorous, venomous, poisonous, malicious, malevolent, malignant, malign, evil, evil-intentioned, nasty, cruel, unkind, ill-natured, baleful 
91. Pardonable (adjective)
ক্ষমা করা যায় এমন
Antonym: inexcusable, unpardonable 
excusable, forgivable, allowable, condonable, minor, slight, venial, not serious, permissible
92. Observe (verb)
পর্যাবেক্ষ করা
Antonym: overlook, disregard, ignore, break 
notice, see, note, perceive, discern, remark, spot, detect, discover, distinguish
93. Complacency (noun)
মনের আনন্দ ,প্রসন্নতা
Antonym: dissatisfaction 
gladness, happiness, delight, smugness, self-satisfaction, self-approval
94. Weigh ( verb )
ওজন হওয়া
Antonym: Not Applicable
heavy, measure, mass, load,
95. Stone (noun)
Antonym: Not Applicable
14 pounds or 6.35 kilograms

‘The Unforgettable History’ Summary and Word Meaning : HSC English First Part

The Unforgettable History’ Summary

Main text/speech as in English For Today for Classes 11-12 (HSC English First Part Textbook) has around 1600 words. The summary beneath has around 500 words. The summary has been written for each para so that you can find them easy to write in exams. However, you should write the summary in a paragraph in exams. You can omit the phrases in the third brackets [ ] if you want to make it shorter.

The Unforgettable History Summary

(1st para) Addressing as brothers, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman tells/reminds/draws attention of the audience to the grief caused by the brutality (and murder) nationwide by the opressors. He echoes the want of freedom, life and rights of the Bengalis. (2nd para) Then Sheikh Mujib muses/reflects on/recalls the tragic history of Bengal of the last 23 years under West Pakistani regime, full of tortures and deprivations – last but not the least, depriving the elected party Awami League of forming government. (3rd para) He enlists the years which landmark the events of political deprivation/oppression faced by the Bengalis in Pakistan – murders in language movement in 1952, annulment/dismissal of the provincial government elected in 1954,  declaration of Martial Law by Ayub Khan in 1958, murders in the six point movement in 1966, transfer of power to Yahya Khan in 1969 and his false promises thereafter. (4th para) Mujib quotes his flexible proposals [as a representative of the majority in whole of Pakistan] to Yahya to arrange National Assembly sessions and Yahya’s conspiring with Mr. Bhutto together. (5th para) Bhutto then comes for further negotiations and Mujib complies with it. But Bhutto plots a rumour of an assassination planned for the West Pakistani MPs [coming in Bengal for the Assembly and resolves to prevent it]. (6th para) Mujib resolves that the Assembly would meet and President Yahya complies with it. Accordingly, 35 MPs from West Pakistan come to Bengal but Yahya treacherously dissolves it based on the same rumour plotted by Bhutto. (7th para) Afterwards, Mujib describes his leading a peaceful general strike observed by the Bengalis. (8 th para) But then he has to painfully describe the oppression by the West Pakistanis on this peaceful movement with bullets fired on Bengalis[, the majority people in Pakistan]. (9th para) Mujib demands justice for the massacre carried out, but Yahya proposes a Round Table Conference instead. Mujib strongly denies it [and condemns Yahya’s actions as the President]. (10th para)Again addressing as brothers, Sheikh Mujib tells the audience his refusal to join the Assembly on the 25 March and his preconditions – to withdraw Martial Law, to send back the army to the barracks, to punish the murderers. He then calls for a nationwide General Strike indefinitely, for executive institutions to shut down with an exemption for transports and banks. Mujib warns the authorities from doing any further aggression, and if done, he guides the audience to confront the enemy with whatever they have [till death even in his absence]. (11th para) He strongly warns the army personnel from taking part in aggression. (12th para), Mujib then goes on to address certain issues regarding the strike – he guides the relief process of the martyrs and the wounded, demands the payment of wages for factory workers during the strike, declares exemptions of tax and custom duties till liberation and demands obedience from the government employees. (13th para) He warns them from the enemy plotting from inside and to maintain internal and communal harmony. (14th para) Next, he demands the workers in radio, television, telegram and banks to conform with their cause, or be faced by the Bengalis. (15th, 16th, 17th and 18th paras) In his final remarks, Sheikh Mujib tells his people to revolt under Awami League’s and fight for this struggle of freedom and emancipation. He concludes with prayer for Bengal to live long.

The Unforgettable History Word Meanings in Ba



1. Grief (noun)
বিষাদ, ক্ষোভ
Antonym: joy, delight

sorrow, misery, sadness, anguish, pain, distress, agony, torment, affliction, suffering, heartache, heartbreak, woe, desolation, despondency, dejection, despair, angst, mortification

2. Yet (adverb)
তবুও, তথাপি, এখনো
Antonym : Not Applicable

nevertheless, nonetheless, even so, but, however, still, notwithstanding, despite that, hitherto, till now

3. Fortunate (adjective)
সৌভাগ্যবান, ঋদ্ধ
Antonym : unfortunate, unlucky, underprivileged

lucky, favoured, blessed, auspicious, born under a lucky star, having a charmed life, charmed, happy

4. Significant (adjective)
তাৎপর্যপূর্ণ, গুরত্বপূর্ণ
Antonym : insignificant, minor, meaningless

important, notable, noteworthy, serious, remarkable, outstanding, of consequence, consequential

5. Awash (adjective)
প্লাবিত,তরঙ্গবিধৌত, ভাসমান
Antonym : dried, parched

flooded, covered with water, afloat, submerged, engulfed, submersed

6. Overflowing (adjective, verb)
উপচে পড়া
Antonym: empty

brimming, overwhelmed, overfull, full to bursting, full to the brim, overcrowded, packed like sardines, congested, choked, overloaded, swelled up, thronged, swarming, teeming

7. Constitution (noun) সংবিধান, শাসনতন্ত্র

charter, set of laws, social code, body of law, system of rules

8. Import ( noun )
প্রভাব, গুরুত্ব
Antonym: expor

implication, importance, effect

9.Cope (verb, noun )
সামলানো , মস্তকাবরণ 
Antonym: crumble

vie, contend, manage, survive, subsist, tire, headwear

10. Draft  (noun)
খসড়া, নকশা
Antonym: final version

manuscript, preliminary version, sketch, outline, plan, blueprint, skeleton, abstract, main points, bones, bare bones

11. Regret( noun, verb )
অনুশোচনা করা, দুঃখ প্রকাশ
Antonym: exult, applaud

contrition, remorse, grief, lamentation, lament, bewail,

12. Tragic( adjective)
দুঃখ জনক, বিয়োগান্তক
Antonym: comic, fortunate, joyful

sorrowful, grievous, miserable, disastrous, calamitous, catastrophic, cataclysmic, devastating, terrible, dreadful, appalling, horrendous, dire, ruinous, gruesome, awful, miserable, wretched, unfortunate

13. Inflict ( verb )
আরোপ করা, শাস্তি দেয়া

strike, deliver, torture, impose, force, press, thrust, foist

14. Torture(verb, noun )
নিপীড়ন, অত্যাচার

torment, anguish, misery, oppression, maltreatment, punishment, persecution

15. Victor (noun )
Antonym: loser, vanquished

winner, champion, conqueror, vanquisher, prizewinner, medallist, cup winner, prizeman

16. Assume (verb )
ধারণা করা, দায়িত্ব গ্রহণ করা

presume, suppose, take on, presuppose, conjecture, surmise, conclude, come to the conclusion, deduce, reckon, reason, guess, imagine, think, fancy, accept, believe, understand

17. Bloodshed (verb )

killing, carnage, bloody affair

18. Agony ( noun)
মহাবেদনা, উৎকণ্ঠা
Antonym: ecstasy, rapture

suppressed pain, suffering, affliction, trauma, trouble, privation, misery, distress, grief, woe, wretchedness, heartbreak, heartache, pangs, throes

19. Crimson (adjective)
টকটকে লাল, রক্তিম বর্ণ

scarlet, reddish, red,


20. Enslave (verb)
দাস  বানিয়ে রাখা, ক্রীতদাস করা
Antonym: liberate, emancipate

subjugate, sell into slavery, defeat, enfetter, overwhelm

21. Reins(noun )

bridle, restraint, check, curb, constraint, restriction, limitation, control

22. Assembly( noun )
সমাবেশ, বৈঠক, সংসদ
Antonym: dismantling, disassembly

gathering, meeting, congregation, convention, rally, convocation, congress, council, synod, audience, assemblage, turnout, group, body, crowd, throng, company

23. So far (adverbial )

until now, up to now, up to this point, as yet, thus far, hitherto, up to date, by this time

24. Observe( verb)
পালন করা, পর্যবেক্ষণ করা
Antonym: overlook, ignore

Synonym: notice, see, note, perceive, discern, remark, spot, detect, discover, distinguish, make out

25. Session( noun )

meeting, sitting, assembly, conclave, hearing,conference, discussion, forum, symposium

26. Negotiation ( noun )
আলাপ আলোচনা, সমঝোতা, চুক্তি
Antonym: provocation

discussion, discussions, talks, consultation, consultations, parleying, mediation, arbitration, intercession, conciliation

27. Slaughter (verb, noun )
জবাই করা, বধ করা
Antonym: save

kill, butcher, murder, massacre, rout, slay

28. Reign( noun, verb )
ক্ষমতা, রাজত্ব

supremacy, mastery, regime, rule, government, realm

29. Democracy (noun )
Antonym: tyranny, dictatorship

republic, constitutional government, popular government,self-government, government by the people, autonomy, commonwealth

30. Majority (noun)
Antonym: minority

dominance, larger number, greater number, greater part, major part, most, bulk, mass, predominance, generality, lion’s share

31. Hold( verb )
অনুষ্ঠিত করা, রাখা
Antonym: let go of 

lay, retain, maintain, bear, catch, tolerate, contain 

32. Instead ( adverb)
Antonym: as well

as an alternative, as a substitute, as a replacement, in lieu, alternatively rather, by contrast

33. Prorogue( verb )
 স্থগিত রাখা

adjourn, cease, break, defer, discontinue

34. Protest (verb, noun )
প্রতিবাদ করা
Antonym: agree

object, dissent, gainsay, contradict, challenge, contravention

35. Spontaneously( adverb )
Antonym: forcefully 



36. Firm (adjective)
অটল ,মজবুত ,অবিচল
Antonym: soft, yielding, unstable,limp, irresolute 

effortlessly, voluntarily, impulsively, extemporaneously, without cause



 resolute, determined, decided, resolved, steadfast,adamant, assertive, emphatic, insistent, unfaltering, unwavering, unflinching,                                                              unswerving, unyielding, unbending, inflexible, obdurate, obstinate, stubborn, intransigent

37. Determination ( noun )
:Antonym: weak-mindedness, pusillanimity 

resolution, resolve, resoluteness ,will power, strength of will, strength of character, single-mindedness, purposefulness, intentness, decision, decidedness 

38. Constitute ( verb )
গঠন করা

comprise, shape, inaugurate, initiate, establish,  found, create, set up, put in place, start, begin, originate, form, organize, develop 

39. External ( adjective )
বাহিরের, বহিরাগত
Antonym: internal 

outer, outside, outermost, outward, exterior, surface, superficial visible, extrinsic, extraneous 

40. Apparent(adjective )
প্রত্যক্ষ, দৃষ্টিমান, প্রতীয়মান
Antonym: unclear, obscure 

evident, plain, obvious, clear, manifest, visible, discernible, perceptible, perceivable, noticeable, detectable, recognizable, observable 


41. Wretched( adjective )
Antonym: comfortable, luxurious, cheerful,worthy, admirable

unlucky, woeful, harsh, hard, grim, stark, difficult,poor, poverty-stricken, impoverished, pitiful, piteous, pathetic, tragic, miserable, bleak, cheerless, hopeless, sorry, sordid, shabby

42. Downtrodden (adjective ) 
অধিকার বঞ্চিত, নিপীড়িত

oppressed, subjugated, persecuted, subdued, repressed, tyrannized, enslaved, burdened, exploited, disadvantaged, underprivileged, victimized, browbeaten, abused, misused, maltreated, ill-treated 

43. Mow (verb)
Antonym: blend 

cut, cut down, scythe, shear, trim crop, clip

44. Deprived (adjective)
বঞ্চিত করা:
Antonym: privileged

disadvantaged, underprivileged, poverty-stricken, impoverished, poor, destitute, needy, depressed, distressed, forlorn

45. Massacre (noun )

carnage, slaughter, butcher, murder, kill, annihilate, exterminate, decimate, kill off, wipe out, put to the sword 

46. Wade ( verb )
পা দিয়ে মাড়া দেওয়া

paddle, wallow, dabble, slop, squelch, trudge, plod

47. Spill(verb )
ঝরা, পতন

stream, pour, surge, swarm, flood, throng, crowd, mill

48. Although (conjunction )

in spite of, despite the fact that, notwithstanding the fact that, notwithstanding that, even though, even if, despite the possibility that, albeit, however, yet, but

49. Withdraw (verb )
প্রত্যাহার,ফিরিয়ে নেওয়া 
Antonym: insert, introduce, bring in, deposit

abolish, cancel, lift, raise, set aside, discontinue, end, stop, terminate, remove, reverse, revoke, rescind,  repeal, countermand, annul, void

50. Barracks (noun)
ছাউনী, ঘর

garrison, camp, encampment, depot, billet, quarters, fort, cantonment, guardhouse

51. Representative  (noun, adjective)
Antonym: unrepresentative

delegate, envoy, ambassador, deputy, courier, surrogate

52. Secretariat (noun)

office, bureau, registers, prefecture

53. Convent (noun )

priory, abbey, monastery, religious house, religious community, cloister

54. Fort ( noun)

fortress, castle, citadel, blockhouse, tower, turret, stronghold, redoubt, fortification, bastion

55. Confront ( verb )
মোকাবিলা করা
Antonym: avoid

challenge, oppose, resist, defy, beard, tackle, attack, assault

56. Indefinitely( adverb )
অনিদিষ্ট ভাবে, অনিশ্চিত ভাবে
Antonym: definitely

indeterminately, hesitantly, doubtfully, unspecifically

57. Magistracy (noun )
বিচারালয়, প্রমাণিক
Antonym: N.A

Synonym: Judiciary, Court

58. Revolt (verb, noun )
বিদ্রোহ করা
Antonym: obey 

rebel, insurgency, rebellion, rise up, take up arms, riot, mutiny, uprising, show resistance,oppose, resist, defy, disobey 

59. Hardship (noun )
Antonym: smoothness, pleasure

privation, deprivation, destitution, poverty, austerity, penury, want, need, neediness, beggary, impecuniousness, impecuniosity, distress,misfortune, suffering, affliction, trouble, pain, misery, wretchedness, tribulation, adversity, disaster, ruin, ruination, calamity

60. Direct (verb, adjective)
সরাসির, নির্দেশনা দেওয়া
Antonym: indirect, inverse 

operate, manage, conduct, lead straight, undeviating, unswerving shortest, quickest 

61. Standstill(noun )
Antonym: change 

halt, stalemate, deadlock, dead stop, stagnancy, unswerving, immobility 


62. Starve (verb )
ক্ষুধায় কাতরানো
Antonym: feed

famish, fast, bereave

63. Bother (verb )
মাথা ঘামানো, ঝামেলা করা 
Antonym: Ignore, Avoid

disturb, trouble, fret, worry, meddle, harass, molest, plague, beset, torment, nag, annoy, upset, irritate, vex, provoke

64. Anarchy (noun )
Antonym: government, order

lawlessness, disorder, chaos, nihilism, mobocracy, revolution, insurrection, riot, rebellion,disorganization, misrule, tumult, turmoil, mayhem, pandemonium

65. Taint (noun, verb )
Antonym: clean, disinfect

mark, scar, flaw, contaminate, pollute, adulterate, infect, blight, befoul, spoil, soil, ruin, destroy

66. Transmit (verb )
প্রেরণ করা, পাঠানো
Antonym: receive

transfer, pass on, send, communicate, convey, impart, channel, carry, bear, relay, dispatch, mediate disseminate, spread, circulate, diffuse, radiate

67. Suppress ( verb )
দমন করা, গোপন করা  
Antonym: express, submit, publicize,

subdue, put down, curb, defeat, conquer, vanquish, triumph over, repress, crush, quell, quash, squash, stamp out, overpower, extinguish, crack down

68. Martyr( verb, noun )
শহীদ, শহীদ করা

put to death, kill, martyrize, crucify

69. Wage (noun )
Antonym: undue 

pay, payment, remuneration, salary, emolument, fee, allowance, honorarium,income, revenue,yield, profit, gain, reimbursement, earnings

70. Chaos (noun)
Antonym: order, orderliness

disorder, disarray, disorganization, confusion, mayhem, bedlam, pandemonium, madness, havoc, turmoil, tumult, commotion, disruption, upheaval, furore, frenzy, uproar, hue and cry, babel, hurly-burly

71. Abroad (adverb )
Antonym: native, domestic

outdoor, oversea, away, foreign

72. Attempt(verb, noun )
চেষ্টা, পদক্ষেপ

try, strive, aim, venture, endeavour, seek, set out, effort, spare no effort

73. Wound (noun, verb )
Antonym: heal

injury, injure, hurt, mutilate, maim, lesion, cut, gash, tear, sore, graze, scratch, scrape, abrasion, bruise, contusion, trauma

74. Assist (verb )
সহেযোগিতা করা
Antonym: hinder, impede

help, aid, support, favour, abet, give assistance to, oblige, accommodate, serve

75. Mean ( noun)
উপায়, অর্থ প্রকাশ করা, মানে বোঝানো
Antonym: N.A

sake, behalfmoney, resources, capital, income, finance, funds, cash, the wherewithal, assets, bread, dibs, moolah, shekels, gelt, loot, oof, scratch, splosh

76. Relief(noun)
মুক্তি, ত্রাণ
Antonym: tension

remission, salvation, rescue, redemption, release, substitute, deputy, reserve, supply

77. Exterminate (verb )
দমন করা, বিনাশ করা
Antonym: create

Synonym: smash, ruin, destroy, annihilate, uproot, kill, put to death, slaughter, butcher, massacre, wipe out, chambers, ethnically cleanse, destroy, eliminate,

78. Appropriate (adjective)
Antonym: inappropriate, irrelevant

suitable, proper, fitting, apt, relevant, connected, pertinent, apposite, applicable, germane,  right, convenient, expedient, favourable, auspicious, propitious

79. Revolution ( noun )
বিপ্লব, আন্দোলন
Antonym: N.A

rebellion, revolt, insurrection, mutiny, uprising, rising, insurgence, insurgency, coup, overthrow, seizure of power, regime change, subversion, disorder, protest, strike 

80. Liberate (verb )
স্বাধীন করা, মুক্ত করা
Antonym: confine, enslave, subjugate

release, redeem, aquit, set free, free, release, let out, let go, discharge, set loose, save, rescue, unshackle, unfetter, unchain, untie, unmanacle, unbind

81. Emancipation(noun )
স্বাধীনতা, মুক্তি
Antonym: enslavement, slavery

liberation, freedom, independence, liberty, swaraj, salvation, release,unfettering, unshackling, unyoking

82. Community (noun )
সম্প্রদায়, সমাজ 
Antonym: isolation, difference

population, society, citizenry, public, collective,nation, state, country, realm, commonwealth, homeland

83. Possession(noun )
Antonym: N.A

ownership, proprietorship, property, belongings, claim, control, charge, hold, title, guardianship


Nelson Mandela: HSC English First Part : (Word meaning)

1. Apartheid 

Meaning:  বর্ণবৈষম্য, বর্ণবাদ, জাতিবিদ্বেষ

Part of speech: noun (mass noun) 

Synonym: Segregation, Race-hatred 

Antonym: Indiscrimination 

2. Shackle 

Meaning:বাধা, হাতকড়া, শিকল 

Part of speech: Noun, Verb (with obj) 

Synonym: chain, fetter, obstacle 

Antonym: free, 

3. Reconciliation 

Meaning: সমন্বয় সাধন, পুনর্মিলন, সময় সাধন, মিটমাট 

Part of speech: Noun 

Synonym: reunion, conciliation, reconcilement 

Antonym: estrangement, alienation 

4. Embody 

Meaning: বহন করা, ধারণ করা, সংগত করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: personify, incorporate, incarnate, give human form to, symbolize Antonym: discarnate, dissimilate 

5. Imprison 

Meaning: অবরুদ্ধ করা, কারারুদ্ধ করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: incarcerate, jail, confine, detain, hold captive, put behind the bar Antonym: free, release 

6. Resolve 

Meaning: সমাধান 

Part of speech: noun, verb 

Synonym: determination, resoluteness, settle, solve 

Antonym: irresoluteness 

7. Emancipation 

Meaning: শৃঙ্খলা-মাচন, স্বাধীনতা 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: liberation, salvation, redemption 

Antonym: enslavement, slavery, restriction 

8. Determined 

Meaning: দৃঢ় প্রতিজ্ঞা,  নির্ধারণ করা 

Part of speech: Adjective, verb 

Synonym: resolute, resolved, adamant, unwavering 

Antonym: irresolute, weak-willed, pusillanimous 

9. Minority

Meaning: সংখ্যা লঘু, লঘুতা 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: smaller number, dissent 

Antonym: majority 

10. Discrimination 

Meaning:  বৈষম্য,  ভেদাভেদ 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: prejudicial treatment, disparity, difference Antonym: Equality, parity 

11. Intensely 

Meaning: তীব্রভাবে

Part of speech: adverb 

Synonym: extremely, vehemently, bitterly 

Antonym: lightly, softly 

12. Manifestation 

Meaning: প্রকাশ, বাস্তবায়ন, উদ্ভাস, 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: exposition, demonstration exhibition, illustration, revelation Antonym: 

12. Chasm 

Meaning: ফাটল,গভির খাদ 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: fissure, gorge, fracture, cleft, 

cavity, gap, crevice 


13. Healing 

Meaning: আরোগ্য, নিরাময় 

Part of speech: noun, (but verb in general) 

Synonym: medication, cure, remedy, recovery, recover Antonym: deterioration 

14. Wound 

Meaning: খত, আঘাত, জখম 

Part of speech: noun, verb 

Synonym: bruise, injury, sore, lesion, hurt, injure 

Antonym: heal 

15. Negotiate 

Meaning: মীমাংসা করা, দরাদরি করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: arbitrate, discuss terms, compromise, bargain Antonym: 

16. Prominent 

Meaning: বিশিষ্ঠ, উল্লেখযোগ্য

Part of speech: adjective

Synonym: important, eminent, distinguished, notable, noteworthy, renowned, acclaimed, esteemed 

Antonym: unimportant, obscure, unknown 

17. Dignity 

Word meaning: মর্যাদা, সান, গৗরব 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: stature, honor, nobleness, nobility, majesty, regality, loftiness, grandeur, magnificence 

Antonym: ignominy, low rank, dishonor 

18. Advocate 

Word meaning: প্রতিনিধ, সমর্থক, উকিল 

Part of speech: noun, verb 

Synonym: upholder, supporter, promoter, patron 

Antonym: critic, reject 

19. Remain 

Word meaning: অবশিষ্ট,  বাকি পড়ে থাকা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: continue to exist, endure, persist, stay,live on 

Antonym: cease to exist, depart, leave 

20. Laureate 

Meaning: রাজকবি,  প্রসিদ্ধ, বিজয়ী 

Part of speech: noun, adjective 

Synonym: celebrated 


21. Mythic 

Meaning: অতিমানিবক, পৗরাণিক,মনগড়া, কাল্পনিক

Part of speech: adjective 

Synonym: legendary, mythical, fictitious, imaginary 

Antonym: real, factual, 

22. Stature 

Meaning: খ্যাতি, মর্যাদা, দৈহিক উচ্চতা 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: dignity, nobility respect, importance, 

Antonym: disgrace, ignominy 

23. Revered 

Meaning: সম্মানিত

Part of speech: adjective, verb 

Synonym: respected, admired, adored, glorified, worshipped, think highly of someone Antonym: despised, disrespected 

24. Combine 

Meaning: মিলিত করা, এক করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: amalgamate, assemble, unite, integrate,fuse, blend, mingle, unify, mix,

Antonym: separate, split up, differentiate 

25. Sparkle 

Meaning: সজীব, সজীবতা,ঝকঝকে

Part of speech: noun, verb 

Synonym: lustre, glitter, glint, glisten, twinkle, flicker, flash, blink, wink, shimmer, shine, gleam Antonym: dark 

26. Unwavering 

Meaning: অবিচল, বাধাহীন, অটল 

Part of speech: adjective, verb 

Synonym: steady, resolute, resolved, firm, steadfast, unswerving, unfluctuating, unfaltering, persistent, unyielding, unshakeable 

Antonym: wavering, unsteady, indecisive 

27. Epicenter 

Meaning: উপকেন্দ্র 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: epicentre 


28. Remark 

Meaning: মন্তব্য করা, উেল্লেখ করা 

Part of speech: verb, noun 

Synonym: comment, observe, mention, reflect, state, declare, notice 


29. Offence 

Meaning: অপরাধ, পাপ, অবমাননা 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: crime, unlawful act, breach of the law, violation of the law, felony, misconduct, delinquency, peccadillo, sin, transgression, infringement, shortcoming, fault, lapse Antonym: Defense, defence 

30. Dock 

Meaning: কাঠগরা, ফিরঘাট 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: witness box, barrier 


31. Dedicate 

Meaning: উৎসর্গকরা, নিবেদিত করা, সমর্পণ করা 

Part of speech: verb, adjective 

Synonym: commit, devote, offer, sacrifice, devout 

Antonym: indifferent, apathetic, uncommitted 

32. Cherish 

Meaning: লালন করা, স্নেহ করা, 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: adore, love, feel great affection for, dote on, admire, protect 

Antonym: neglect, abandon

33. Democratic 

word meaning: গণতান্ত্রিক

Part of speech: adjective 


Antonym: undemocratic 

34. Harmony 

Meaning: সাদৃশ্য , সমন্বয়, মিল, ঐকতান 

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: accord, agreement, coherence, congruence, euphony, consonance, mellifluousness Antonym: dissonance, disagreement 

35. Opportunity 

Meaning: সুযোগ, সুবিধা

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: possibility, scope, chance, convenience, advantage 

Antonym: inconvenience 

36. Achieve 

Meaning: অর্জন করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: accomplish, acquire, attain, reach, arrive at, obtain, secure, seize Antonym: lose. fail 

37. Laud,  

Meaning: প্রশংসা করা, গুণকীতন করা 

Part of speech: verb 

Synonym: praise, glorify, applause, admire 

Antonym: denigrate, condemn 

38. Fondly 

Meaning: কামলভােব, স্নেহে

Part of speech: adverb 

Synonym: affectionately, tenderly 

Antonym: uncaringly 

39. Clan 

Meaning: বংশ, জািত, গোষ্ঠী

Part of speech: noun 

Synonym: tribe, group, race, community 


40. Multi-racial 

Meaning: বহুজাতিক 

Part of speech: adjective 

Synonym: diversified 

Antonym: mono-racial 

41. Stigma 

Meaning: দাগ, কালি

Part of Speech: noun

Synonym: stain, a mark of disgrace Antonym: honour

What is a dream? : HSC English First Part : (Word meaning)

প্রিয় পাঠক, What is a Dream নামে তোমাদের English For Today বইয়ে এ অন্তর্ভুক্ত অধ্যায় রয়েছে।  আসো, অধ্যায়টির Word Meanings আমরা পড়ে নিই :

What is A Dream – Word Meanings, Synonyms and Antonyms



What is A Dream : Activities 1 and 2

1. Dream (noun )
স্বপ্ন, কল্পনা, কামনা
ntonym: reality, nightmare

fantasy, fancy, vision, hallucination, fallacy

2. Imagination ( noun)
Antonym: reality, fact

fantasy, fancy, visualization, supposition creativity, imaginativeness, creativeness, vision, inspiration, fascination

3. Nightmare (noun)
Antonym: dream

bad dream, night terrors

4. Reverie ( noun )
দিবাস্বপ্ন, কল্পনা
Antonym: fact, reality

daydream, fantasy, drowsiness, fancy, hallucination, obliviousness, absent-mindednes

5. Hallucination (noun)
Antonym: reality

delusion, illusion, vision, mirage, fantasy, daydream

6. Shadowy ( adjective )
ছায়াময়, আবছায়া
Antonym: bright, sunny, distinct, clear

misty, nebulous, dark, dim, gloomy, murky, shady, shaded, blur sunless

7. Silvery ( adjective )
রূপালী, চকচকে
Antonym: dull, chromatic

shining, Argentine

8. Dreamy (adjective)
স্বপ্নময়, ক্ষনস্থায়ী, স্বপ্ন স্বপ্ন ভাব
Antonym: ordinary

visionary, cursory, daydreaming, imaginary, delusive, impractical

9. Haunting ( adjective)
ভূতুরে, হানা দেত্তয়া
Antonym: unaffecting, unmemorable

evocative, affecting, moving, touching, soul-stirring, frequenting

10. Dreamer (noun)
যে স্বপ্ন দেখে
Antonym: realist

fantasist, fantasizer, daydreamer, romantic, sentimentalist

11. Fragments ( noun )
টুকরো, কনিকা, ক্ষুদ্র অংশ, খণ্ড
Antonym: chunk

piece, bit, particle, speck, chip, shard, sliver, splinter, shaving, paring, snippet, scrap, offcut, flake, shred, tatter, wisp, morsel

What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 1st Section

12. Fascinate ( verb )
 মুগ্ধ করা, বিমোহিত করা
Antonym: repel, thwart

enthrall, captivate, beguile, bewitch, enrapture, entrance, transfix, mesmerize, hypnotize, spellbind, compel, allure, tempt, entice, tantalize, charm, attract, delight, entertain, amuse

13. Philosopher (noun)
Antonym: realist, 

thinker, theorist, theorizer, theoretician, philosophizer, metaphysicist, epistemologist, logician, speculator, scholar, intellectual, sage, wise man

14. Empirical (adjective)
গবেষণামূলক, অভিজ্ঞতালব্ধ
Antonym: theoretical

experimental, pragmatic, observed, seen, factual, actual, real, verifiable, first-hand, experiential

15. Wonder (noun)
বিস্ময়, আশ্চর্য, আবাক করা
Antonym: abhor, dislike

marvel, admiration, fascination, surprise, astonishment, amazement

16. Puzzling (adjective, verb)
হতবুদ্ধিকর, গোলমেলে
Antonym: enlightening, straightforward

perplexing, confusing, vexatious, baffling


What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 2nd Section

17. Vivid (adjective)
স্পষ্ট, প্রাণবন্ত
Antonym: dull, washed out, vague, boring

bright, bright-coloured, colourful, brilliant, glowing, radiant, vibrant, strong, bold, deep, intense, warm, flaming, flamboyant, glaring, eye-catching

18. Vague (adjective)
Antonym: clear, precise, clear, certain, organized

indistinct, indefinite, indeterminate, unclear, hazy, cloudy, fuzzy, misty, lacking definition, blurred, blurry, murky, foggy, faint, shadowy, dim, obscure, nebulous, shapeless, formless, unformed, amorphous

19. Frightening (adjective)
Antonym: comforting

terrifying, horrifying, alarming, startling, shocking, chilling, spine-chilling, hair-raising, blood-curdling, appalling, disturbing, disconcerting, unnerving, intimidating, daunting, dismaying, upsetting, harrowing, traumatic


What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 3rd Section

20. Purpose (noun)
Antonym: indifference, irrelevant

motive, motivation, grounds, cause, impetus, occasion, reason, point, basis, justification

21. Serve (verb)
সেবা করা, আদায় করা
Antonym: receive

work for, perform, obey, attend, distribute

22. Baffling ( adjective )
বিভ্রান্তিকর, ধোঁয়াটে
Antonym: clear, comprehensible

puzzling, bewildering, perplexing, mystifying, bemusing, confusing, unclear, mysterious, enigmatic, obscure, abstruse, unfathomable, inexplicable, incomprehensible, impenetrable, cryptic, opaque

23. Consider ( verb )
বিবেচনা করা
Antonym: ignore

think, contemplate, reflect on, examine, appraise, review, study, ponder, deliberate over, cogitate, meditate on, ruminate

24. Unraveling (verb)
উন্মোচিত করা ,স্পষ্ট করা
Antonym: entangle, tangle

untangle, disentangle, straighten out, separate out, unsnarl, unknot, unwind, untwist, untie, unjumble

25. Exact (adjective)
নিদিষ্ট , সঠিক
:Antonym: inexact, inaccurate, careless

precise, accurate, correct, faithful, close, true, veracious, literal, strict, unerring, faultless, errorless, error-free, perfect, impeccable


What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 4th Section

26. Prominent (adjective)
উল্লেখযোগ্য, লক্ষনীয়, বিশিষ্ট
Antonym: unimportant, obscure, unknown, inconspicuous

important, well known, leading, eminent, pre-eminent, distinguished, notable, noteworthy, public, outstanding, foremost, illustrious, celebrated, famous, renowned, acclaimed, famed, honoured, esteemed, respected, influential, prestigious, great, chief, main

27. Theories ( noun )
Antonym: in practice, in reality

hypothesis, thesis, conjecture, supposition, speculation, postulation, proposition, premise, surmise, assumption, guess


What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 5th Section

28. Consistent (adjective)
সামঞ্জস্যপূর্ণ, দৃঢ়
Antonym: inconsistent, irregular, fluctuating, incompatible

steady, stable, constant, regular, even, uniform, orderly, unchanging, unvarying, unswerving, undeviating, unwavering, unfluctuating, homogeneous

29. Psychoanalytic (adjective)
Antonym: Not Applicable

Not Applicable

30. Perspective (noun)
Antonym:  Not Applicable

outlook, aspects, view, viewpoint, point of view, standpoint, position, stand, stance, attitude, approach, way of looking, interpretation

31. Motivation ( noun )
অনুপ্রেরনা, প্রেরনা
Antonym:  Not Applicable

inspiration, incentive, stimulus, dictation, stimulation,  impulse, inducement, incitement, spur, goad, provocation

32. Aggressive (adjective)
উগ্র, আক্রমণাত্মক
Antonym: meek, friendly, peaceful, submissive, diffident

hostile, belligerent, bellicose, antagonistic, truculent, pugnacious, combative, violent, confrontational, quarrelsome, argumentative

33. Instincts ( noun )
Antonym: deduction

proneness, propensity, natural tendency, inclination, urge, drive, compulsion, intuition

34. Repressed (adjective)
অবদমিত, চেপে রাখা হয়
Antonym: free, democratic, overt, expressed, uninhibited, relaxed

oppressed, subjugated, subdued, tyrannized, afflicted, downtrodden, persecuted, quelled


What is A Dream : Activity 3 : 6th Section

35. According (to) (adjective)
মত, অনুসারে
Antonym: discordant

following, similar

36. Desire (noun, verb)
Antonym: hate, disgust

(v.) wish, want, fancy

(n.) aspiration, impulse, preference, yearning, longing, craving, hankering, pining, eagerness, enthusiasm, determination,  proclivity, predisposition, fancy

37. Conscious (adjective)
Antonym: unconscious, unaware

aware, awake, alert, responsive, reactive, feeling, sentient

38. Via ( proposition )
Antonym:  Not Applicable

en route, through, by

39. Disguised (adjective)
ছদ্ম, জাল , সাজানো
Antonym: overt, open , ostensible

feigned, camouflaged, concocted, forged, faked  incognito, under cover

40. Fulfillment (noun)
Antonym: emptiness, void

completion, fullness, completeness, congestion


What is A Dream :  Activity 3 : 7th Section with all its sub-sections

41. Contribute ( verb )
অবদান রাখা
Antonym: refuse,misconduct

give, donate, help, subscribe, grant, bestow, present, gift, accord

42. Path  ( noun )
Antonym:  Not Applicable

way, road, course, route, street, footpath, pathway,  track, trail, walkway, passage

43. Theorist (noun)
তত্ত্ববিদ, তাত্ত্বিক
Antonym:  Not Applicable

thinker, theorizer, theoretician, philosophizer, metaphysicist, epistemologist, dialectician, logician, speculator, scholar,intellectual, learned person, sage, wise man

44. Interpretation (noun)
Antonym: problem, difficulty, text

explanation, illustration, elucidation, expounding, exposition, explication, exegesis, clarification

45. Generate (verb)
উৎপাদন করা , সৃষ্টি করা
Antonym: destroy, shatter

create, produce, cause, raise,  result in, make, initiate, engender, spawn, originate, bring to pass, precipitate

46. Instead ( adverb )
Antonym:  Not Applicable

as an alternative, as a substitute, as a replacement, in lieu, alternatively, rather, by contrast,

47. Cognitive ( adjective )
জ্ঞান সম্বন্ধনীয়
Antonym:  Not Applicable


48. Element ( noun )
Antonym: total, mass

component, constituent, material part, section, portion, piece, segment, bit, factor, feature, facet, ingredient, strand, detail, point

49. Produce (verb)
উৎপন্ন করা
Antonym: spoil, destroy

manufacture, make, construct, yield, build, generate, propagate, assemble, create

50. Stimuli ( noun )
উত্তেজনা , উদ্দীপক বস্তু
Antonym: deterrent, discouragement

stimulus, spur, stimulant, encouragement, impetus, boost, prompt, prod, incentive, inducement, inspiration, motivation, impulse

51. Content ( noun, verb )
প্রষঙ্গ, বিষয় বস্তু, পরিমাণ
Antonym: discontent

subject matter, amount, proportion, quantity, bulk

52. Metaphor (noun)
রুপক, উপমা, অলংকারবিশেষ
Antonym: fact, history

figurative expression, image, trope, allegory, parable, immplied simile, analogy, comparison, symbol, a figure of speech

53. Clutter ( noun )
আর্বজনা, এলোমেলো অবস্থা
Antonym: unclutter

chaos, disorder, mess, noise, confusion

54. Function (noun)
কাজ, কার্যালাপ
Antonym: malfunction

act, deed, purpose, task, use, role, reason, basis, justification

55. Psychotherapy (noun)
সম্মোহন, মনঃসমীক্ষণ প্রভৃতির দ্বারা রোগ নিরাময় বিদ্যা
Antonym: Not Applicable

Mental treatment





From Bangla Medium to Harvard Business School

Harvard Business School

বাংলা মিডিয়াম থেকে হাভার্ড বিজনেস স্কুল !

From Bangla Medium to Harvard Business School- Let us listen how the journey was posssible :

A student with education from Bangla medium high school and college got chance into Harvard Business School, the most prestigious business school in the world. Prof. Dr. M. Shahidullah tells us how he could get into Harvard.

Dr. M. Shahidullah is one of the seniormost professors and a leading ELT expert in Bangladesh. At present, he works at the department of English, Rajshahi University. Apart from his regular B.A and M.A from RU, he did an M.A (Applied Linguistics) from the University of Portsmouth, UK, Diploma in T.E.F.L from the University of Sydney, PhD from Pune University, India, and Post-Doc from Pennsylvania State University, USA. He has also been a Fulbright Scholar. In addition to his teaching career in East West University and the University of Rajshahi, he also has been the co-author of the English textbook series in the national curriculum, English For Today, in its subsequent versions.

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‘Time, You Old Gypsy Man’ by Ralph Hodgson

প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী, আমরা নিয়ে এসেছি English For Today (Classes 9 and 10) এর Unit 14 এর কবিতাগুলোর আলোচনা। কবিতাগুলো বোঝার সুবিধার জন্য থাকছে প্রতিটি কবিতার সারসংক্ষেপ (summary) বা আলোচ্য বিষয়গুলো (Themes )নিয়ে লেখা। সঙ্গে থাকবে ব্যতিক্রম ও জটিল Vocabulary List । তোমরা এগুলো অধ্যয়ন ও অনুশীলনের মাধ্যমে কবিতাগুলো পুরোপুরি বুঝতে ও আত্মস্থ করতে সক্ষম হয় উঠবে বলে আমাদের আশা। Unit 14, Lesson 3 এ অন্তর্ভুক্ত Ralph Hodgson এর কবিতা Time, You Old Gypsy Man এর Summary নিয়েই আজকের পোস্ট।

TIME, you old gipsy man,|||Last week in Babylon,
  Will you not stay,|||Last night in Rome,
Put up your caravan|||Morning, and in the crush
  Just for one day?||| Under Paul’s dome;
  ||| Under Paul’s dial
All things I’ll give you||| You tighten your rein—
Will you be my guest,||| Only a moment,
Bells for your jennet|||And off once again;
Of silver the best,||| Off to some city
Goldsmiths shall beat you|||Now blind in the womb,
A great golden ring,|||Off to another
Peacocks shall bow to you,|||
Little boys sing,|||  Time, you old gipsy man,
Oh, and sweet girls will|||Will you not stay,
Festoon you with may.|||Put up your caravan
Time, you old gipsy,|||  Just for one day?
Why hasten away?|||

Summary/Theme of ‘Time, You Old Gypsy Man’ by Ralph Hodgson:

In this poem, the speaker compares swift-moving time with an old gypsy man and asks it to stop only for a day and to be his guest. In return, he offers to give the best available silver and gold, respect and recreation, anything he has in his repertoire. Then the speaker mentions the ancient civilization of Babylon and Rome and influential figure like St. Paul– all that have succumbed to the quicksand of time. He explores the rapidity of time in human life, from mother’s womb to funeral tomb. And he desires to prolong his journey at any cost and begs time to slow down its movement.

Also Read :
The Sands of Dee‘ by Charles Kingsley

‘She Walks in Beauty’ and ‘I Died for Beauty’

What is Beauty

প্রিয় পাঠক, তোমাদের English For Today বইয়ের Unit 14, Lesson 1 এ What is Beauty নামের অধ্যায়ে Beauty প্রসঙ্গে দুটি কবিতা রয়েছে : ‘She Walks in Beauty’ and ‘I Died for Beauty’। একটি কবিতার লেখক একজন ব্রিটিশ পুরুষ কবি Lord Byron, অপরটির লেখক একজন আমেরিকান নারী Emily Dickinson। আটলান্টিক মহাসাগরের দুধারের দুজন কবিতা লিখেছেন কিন্তু একই বিষয়কে ঘিরে – সৌন্দর্য।

দুটি কবিতাই HSC English First Paper পরীক্ষার Theme Writing এর জন্য খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। এসো, কবিতা দুটির Theme সম্পর্কে আমরা পড়ে নিই :

She Walks in Beautyby Lord Byron

The main theme of the poem is ‘beauty’ gained through harmony. The poet celebrates the exceptional beauty of an unnamed woman excellently. He compares this unnamed woman to a lovely night with a clear starry sky. According to him the beauty of the woman is a harmonious meeting between darkness and light. The poem also shows that the physical beauty of the woman is linked to her inner beauty. The woman’s outer appearance is read as a sign of her inner serenity, peacefulness and innocence. Her outer beauty is a reflection of her inner beauty. Thus the poet shows that this perfect beauty of the woman is because of her inner and outer beauty being in harmony with one another. 

I Died for Beauty‘ by Emily Dickinson

The poem mainly deals with two very familiar themes. They are beauty and truth. The poet boldly depicts the keen relationship between these two concepts- beauty and truth. Beauty and truth are two inseparable ideals in life. The poem shows that these two fundamentals are in touch with each other in the afterlife, even till their decay by the moss. They are brethren and kinsmen. These themes of beauty and truth also remind us of the Keatsian saying,”beauty is truth, truth beauty”. 

Author : M.Ghaji

প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধু, আমরা প্রতিটি পোস্টেই তোমাদেরকে এবিষয়ে সতর্ক করি এ Model গুলো যেন মুখস্ত না কর, বরং, এগুলোর সাহায্যে মূল কবিতার ভাববস্তু বুঝ এবং কবিতার ভাববস্তু সম্পর্কে কিভাবে লিখতে হয়, তাতে দক্ষতা অর্জনে চেষ্টা কর।

HSC English First Paper পরীক্ষার জন্য English For Today (Class 11-12) বইয়ের আরো কবিতার theme পড়তে ক্লিক কর এখানে।

‘The Schoolboy’ by William Blake

The Schoolboy by William Blake

প্রিয় HSC শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধু, ‘The Schoolboy’ by William Blake কবিতাটি তোমাদের বইয়ের Unit 5, Lesson 3 এর মধ্যে Why Does a Child Hate School ? নামের অধ্যায়ে বিদ্যমান। কবিতাটির কয়েকটি Theme নিচে দেয়া হল।

Model Theme 1

The main theme of the poem, “The school boy” is the urge of a child for freedom. The poem deals with the conflict between the obligations imposed on a child’s craving for being free like a bird. A child is supposed to be jovial and enjoy his childhood fully with happiness. But this happiness of the child is destroyed when the authority imposes complications like going to school on the child. To show this state of the child, the post compares the child with a bird. He says a bird cannot sing sweetly if it is caged. Similarly a child cannot grow well if he is burdened with rules and regulations. Thus the old age of the child becomes unproductive.

Model Theme 2

The main theme of the poem is the children’s longing for unrestrained joy free from the clutches of imposed obligation. The speaker mentions that children love to enjoy the beauty of summer morn, the melody of skylark and the sweet company of other natural phenomena. But much to their reluctance and dismay, they are forced to attend unpleasant learning’s bower under the supervision of cruel eyes that turn all delight of summer into the frozen dismay of winter. As a bird cannot fly freely inside a cage; a tender plant cannot grow if it is stripped; likewise, a child can never thrive in a confined aura of the four walls, deprived of joy. Therefore the speaker bluntly criticizes the traditional educational system that encumbers children from flourishing and clips their wings from unfolding.

প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধু, আমরা প্রতিটি পোস্টেই তোমাদেরকে এবিষয়ে সতর্ক করে থাকি যে পরীক্ষায় লেখার জন্য এগুলো যেন মুখস্ত না কর, বরং, এগুলো পড়ে নিজের মত করে একটি লিখবে। এই মডেল Theme গুলো কখনোই মুখস্ত করার জন্য নয়। বরং কবিতাটির Theme বুঝার জন্য। প্রয়োজনে, বাসায় নিজের মত করে লিখে সেটি শিক্ষককে দেখাবে। তারপর সেটি সংশোধন করে পরীক্ষায় লিখবে। কিন্তু কখনোই, অন্যের লেখা হুবহু লিখবে না। এতে তোমার মেধা বিকাশের পথ শুরুতেই রুদ্ধ হয়ে যাবে।

HSC First Paper পরীক্ষার জন্য English For Today (Class 11-12) বইয়ের আরো কবিতার theme পড়তে ক্লিক কর এখানে।

Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind (As You Like It)

blow blow though winter wind

প্রিয় পাঠক, Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind কবিতাটি তোমাদের বইয়ের Unit 4, Lesson 2 তে Love and Friendship নামে রয়েছে। কবিতাটি বাস্তবে William Shakespeare এর বিখ্যাত নাটক As You Like It এর মধ্যে Amiens নামক এক চরিত্রের গাওয়া একটি ছোটগান। তুমি কি লক্ষ্য করেছ, কবিতাটির উপরে অধ্যায়ের সূচনার দিকে italics এ লেখা কয়েকটি লাইন আছে ? এসো লাইনগুলো দেখি :

লাইনগুলো কবিতাটির বিষয়বস্তু সম্পর্কে। তুমি কি জানো, এই লাইনগুলোই বাস্তবে কবিতাটির theme writing ?

লাইনগুলোর মাধ্যমে শ্রদ্ধেয় লেখকগণ তোমাকে কবিতাটির মূলভাব বা theme বোঝাতে চেয়েছেন। আর এভাবে শিরোনামহীন দেয়ার কারণ যেন তুমি মূল বিষয়টি উপলব্ধি করার পূর্বে মুখস্ত করতে উদ্যত না হও। এভাবেই আস্তে আস্তে বিভিন্ন আঙ্গিকে লেখা theme পড়তে পড়তে কবিতার theme বোঝা ও লেখাতে তোমাকে পারদর্শী হয়ে উঠতে হবে। Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind এর আরো কয়েকটি Theme নিচে দেয়া হল।

Model Theme 1 : Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind

This song (or poem) is actually a song sung by Amiens, a character in the play As you like it by William Shakespeare. The main theme of the poem is fake friendship. The speaker here compares human nature with the harsh winter wind to show the negative attributes of human beings. According to him a fake friend causes more pain than the harsh winter wind. The winter wind is bitter but the intensity of this bitterness is lesser than the ingratitude of a friend. The winter wind hurts for a short period of time but the betrayal of a friend is unforgettable. The sting of the winter wind is not unbearable but a friend’s ingratitude is hard to tolerate. 

Model Theme 2

The main theme of the poem (or, the short song) is the exposure of the ungrateful nature of the human heart. The forces of nature such as, winter wind and frosty sky cause great sufferings to mankind. But the ingratitude of friends and lovers generates greater grief and anguish due to its sheer perceptibility. The nature is harsh sometimes, but harsher is the sting of thankless attitudes in man that bites bitterly fading the intensity of winter.

প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধু, এই মডেল Theme গুলো কখনোই মুখস্ত করার জন্য নয়। বরং কবিতাটির Theme বুঝার জন্য। তুমি পরীক্ষায় লেখার জন্য অবশ্যই এগুলো মুখস্ত করবে না, বরং, এগুলো পড়ে নিজের মত করে একটি লিখবে। প্রয়োজনে, বাসায় নিজের মত করে লিখে সেটি শিক্ষককে দেখাবে। তারপর সেটি সংশোধন করে পরীক্ষায় লিখবে। কিন্তু কখনোই, অন্যের লেখা হুবহু লিখবে না। এতে তোমার মেধা বিকাশের পথ শুরুতেই রুদ্ধ হয়ে যাবে।

HSC First Paper পরীক্ষার জন্য English For Today (Class 11-12) বইয়ের আরো কবিতার theme পড়তে ক্লিক কর এখানে।.

The Lake Isle of Innisfree by Y. B. Yeats

The Lake Isle of Innisfree by Y. B. Yeats

Theme of the Poem

প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী বন্ধু, এই মডেল Theme গুলো কখনোই মুখস্ত করার জন্য নয়। বরং কবিতাটির Theme বুঝার জন্য। তুমি পরীক্ষায় লেখার জন্য অবশ্যই এগুলো মুখস্ত করবে না, বরং, এগুলো পড়ে নিজের মত করে একটি লিখবে। প্রয়োজনে, বাসায় নিজের মত করে লিখে সেটি শিক্ষককে দেখাবে। তারপর সেটি সংশোধন করে পরীক্ষায় লিখবে। কিন্তু কখনোই, অন্যের লেখা হুবহু লিখবে না। এতে তোমার মেধা বিকাশের পথ শুরুতেই রুদ্ধ হয়ে যাবে। The Lake Isle of Innisfree by Y. B. Yeats এর কয়েকটি Theme নিচে দেয়া হল।

Model Theme 1 (Level : Easily Suitable for Most HSC Students)

The main theme of the poem is the poet’s longing for peace and tranquility. The poet wants to go to Innisfree, a place devoid of the chaos and commotion of daily life. He wants to be in touch with nature to achieve the peace and calmness he desires. And he is certain that he will be able to lead a peaceful life being in touch with nature if he lives alone in Innisfree. He prefers nature to city to live in because he knows that only nature can bring peace and harmony to man. That is why the poet wants to escape from city life to Innisfree, a peaceful and beautiful place, and build his dream home there.

written by M.Ghaji

Model Theme 2 (Level : Undergraduate or High Performing HSC Students)

The main theme of the poem is the speaker’s quest for unruffled serenity in the lap of nature. The speaker desires to live in a small hut near the lake isle of Innisfree abandoning the troubling bustles of city life. Since nature has profuse healing power, he wants to turn his turbulent heart into a peaceful one, being in touch with every object of nature- from buzzing bees to fluttering birds. The tranquil aura and the enshrouded beauty of the lake will bring long-cherished peace to his disturbed soul. The desire to attain this exhilarating calmness is so intense in him that the sound of the lake whispers into the speaker’s heart. At the time of trouble, he revives past memories of the lake he has in his heart to get utmost consolation.

written by Night-in-Gale

To know about the poet William Butler Yeats click here.

HSC First Paper পরীক্ষার জন্য English For Today (Class 11-12) বইয়ের আরো কবিতার theme পড়তে ক্লিক কর এখানে।.

The Darkling Thrush by Thomas Hardy

পাঠক অবশ্যই এবিষয়ে উৎসুক হবেন যে, The Darkling Thrush by Thomas Hardy এর কোন বিষয়টি আমরা আলোচনা করব – Summary, Theme, নাকি অন্যকিছু? বাস্তবে আমরা করব Paraphrase, কেননা :

ইংরেজি ভাষা শেখার মাধ্যম হিসেবে মাতৃভাষা বাংলার ব্যবহারে English Book BD বদ্ধপরিকর। তবে, ইংরেজি ভাষা শেখার উৎকর্ষের জন্য, ইংরেজি কোন লেখার অনুবাদ বাংলায় না শিখে বরং সহজতর ইংরেজিতে বোঝার চেষ্টা করা উচিত। যুগ যুগ ধরে চলে আসা ELT নিয়ে সহস্র গবেষণার ফলে লব্ধ একটি সিদ্ধান্ত এটি। আমরা চাই, প্রচলিত গাইডবইয়ের কোন নতুন সংস্করণ না হোক। আর সেজন্যই ইংরেজি ভাষার শিক্ষার্থীদের নিকট অনুরোধ রইবে, জটিল ইংরেজির অর্থ সহজ ইংরেজিতে বুঝতে শিখুন। আর সেই শেখার পথে বাংলা ভাষায় দিকনির্দেশনা দেবার জন্যই নিবেদিত রয়েছি আমরা – প্রিয় শিক্ষার্থী – আপনার স্কুল-কলেজ বা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের শিক্ষার মাধ্যম বাংলা বলে হীনম্মন্যতায় ভুগবেন না। বাংলা ভাষাতেই আপনাকে সর্বোচ্চ ইংলিশ মিডিয়াম প্রতিষ্ঠানের সমান, বরঞ্চ উন্নততর নির্দেশনা দিতে আমরা বদ্ধপরিকর।

সহজ ভাষায় কঠিন বিষয়টিকে বুঝিয়ে বলার নামই Paraphrase ; Paraphrase পড়ার মাধ্যমে একজন শিক্ষার্থী text টি বুঝতে ও প্রকৃতভাবে শিখতে অগ্রসর হয়। সেজন্য, English book BD মনে করে, এজাতীয় resource সহজলভ্য করার মাধ্যমে তা ইংরেজি সাহিত্য বুঝতে প্রচলিত Summary মুখস্তবিদ্যার একটি কার্যকর বিকল্প হয়ে উঠতে পারে। Thomas Hardyর বিখ্যাত কবিতা The Darkling Thrush এর Paraphrase দিয়েই শুরু হচ্ছে এই আমাদের যাত্রা – সকলের শুভকামনা প্রার্থী।

Name of the Poem : The Darkling Thrush

Poet : Thomas Hardy

[The Thrush is ‘darkling’ means that the song bird or ‘thrush’ sang as night was approaching]

First Stanza :

I leant upon a coppice gate
      When Frost was spectre-grey,
And Winter’s dregs made desolate
      The weakening eye of day.
The tangled bine-stems scored the sky
      Like strings of broken lyres,
And all mankind that haunted nigh
      Had sought their household fires.


Paraphrase of the first stanza : I rested myself against a gate of timber (the gate of entering the new century), when the surrounding became covered with ghostly grey coloured frost (on a winter evening). Dregs of winter (or snowflakes) made the setting sun look very lonely and isolated from the rest of the atmosphere. (Suddenly my eyes fell on) the twisted together pair of bine stems a summer flower which seemed (to be so high reaching,) as if the broken strings of a (heavenly) lyre fell down on earth. (The dead flower stems reminded me of summer, as if, it was a reminder of the warmth and melody it had provided before). And all the people who gazed near around the day had taken shelter in the warmth of their household fireplace. (The demise of summer had left the world behind like an abandoned and colourless valley in the grasp of the harshness of winter.)


Second stanza :

The land’s sharp features seemed to be
      The Century’s corpse outleant,
His crypt the cloudy canopy,
      The wind his death-lament.
The ancient pulse of germ and birth
      Was shrunken hard and dry,
And every spirit upon earth
      Seemed fervourless as I.


Paraphrase of the second stanza: The sharp outlines of the winter landscape seemed to me like the sharpness of a corpse (specifically, the corpse of the dying nineteenth century). The cloudy sky above the forest seemed like its tomb and the harsh sound of winter wind, its death-lament. The pulse (throbbing heartbeat) of germination and birth got assumed to be hard and dry as the dead. And every living creature seemed devoid of intensity and passion, likely as I, myself was.


Third Stanza :

At once a voice arose among
      The bleak twigs overhead
In a full-hearted evensong
      Of joy illimited;
An aged thrush, frail, gaunt, and small,
      In blast-beruffled plume,
Had chosen thus to fling his soul
      Upon the growing gloom.


Paraphrase of the third stanza : At this nadir, suddenly a voice arose from above the woody shoots of the dead summer flower (bleak-twigs) and sounded full of incitement and melodious as the evening prayer. An aged thrush (song bird) having lean figure and exhausted outlook (which indicated its survival through the struggling hard winter) was discovered to deliver the tune. It appeared to me that the thrush, through its spirit-enlivening song, tried to rescue the ones who lost their heart and hope due to the gloomy atmosphere then, created by the deepening twilight as night approached


Fourth stanza:

So little cause for carolings
      Of such ecstatic sound
Was written on terrestrial things
      Afar or nigh around,
That I could think there trembled through
      His happy good-night air
Some blessed Hope, whereof he knew
      And I was unaware.


Paraphrase of the fourth stanza : I found very distant and little cause for the singing of the bird with such ecstasy and its expression of vigorous and lively joy from inside in such scruffy landscape and its harsh wintry weather. I assume God had wilfully written (bestowed) on the thrush’s throat, the carolling (singing) enchanted with lures from paradise, for reviving hope into us, when we become frail and mournful. May be, the thrush had known some reasons of hope, which I, myself was ignorant of.

List of Important Vocabulary

  • Darkling : adjective : (literary) Growing dark or characterized by darkness (OED)
  • Thrush : noun : A small or medium-sized songbird, typically having a brown back, spotted breast, and loud song (OED)

Stanza  1

  • Leant : verb : Past form of Lean [Be in a sloping position (OED)]
  • Coppice : noun : an area of closely planted trees in which the trees are cut back regularly to provide wood  (CED)
  • Frost : (mass/collective) noun : A deposit of small white ice crystals formed on the ground or other surfaces when the temperature falls below freezing (OED)
  • Spectre : adjective : like a ghost; connected with a ghost (OED)
  • Dregs : noun : the last parts of something (OED )
  • Desolate : adjective : A desolate place is empty and not attractive, with no people or nothing pleasant in it (CED)
  • Weakening : verb : present participle form of Weaken [become weaker in power, resolve, or physical strength (OED)]
  • Tangled : adjective : together in an untidy way (OED)
  • Bine : noun : a long, flexible stem of a climbing plant, especially the hop (OED)
  • Stems : noun : the main long, thin part of a plant above the ground from which the leaves or flowers grow (OED)
  • Scored : verb : Past form of Score [to win points, goals, etc. in a game or competition (OED)]
  • Lyres : noun : an ancient musical instrument consisting of a U-shaped frame with strings attached to it (CED)
  • Haunt : verb : be frequently present at a place
  • Nigh : adverb : (archaic, literary) at a short distance away (OED)
  • Household : noun : A house and its occupants regarded as a unit (OED)

Stanza  2

  • Sharp : adjective : (of an emotion or experience) felt acutely or intensely; painful (OED) 
  • Corpse : noun : a dead body, especially of a human (OED)
  • Outleant : adjective : leant outwards
  • Crypt : noun : a room under the floor of a church where bodies are buried (CED)
  • The Canopy : noun : the uppermost branches of the trees in a forest, forming a more or less continuous layer of foliage (OED)
  • Death-lament : noun : a passionate expression of grief or sorrow for someone’s death (OED)
  • Ancient : adjective : very old; having existed for a very long time (OED)
  • Pulse : noun : A musical beat or other regular rhythm (OED)
  • Germ : noun : an initial stage from which something may develop (CED)
  • Shrunken : adjective : having become smaller in size; wrinkled or shriveled through old age or illness (OED); also Past Participle form of  Shrink (verb)
  • Fervourless : noun : without intense and passionate feeling (OED)

Acknowledgement : The Thomas Hardy Society

To know more about Thomas Hardy, see :  Encyclopaedia Britannica

For more resources on literature, visit our POETRY section.





সংজ্ঞা : গ্রিক শব্দটির অর্থ ‘নাম পরিবর্তন’. এটি একটি উল্লেখযোগ্য figure of speech. এ প্রক্রিয়ার মাঝে একটি বিষয় বা বস্তুর নামকে তার সাথে খুব ঘনিষ্ঠভাবে সম্পর্কিত (associated) অপর একটি বিষয় বা বস্তুর নাম দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপন করা হয়. নতুন নামটিকে metonym বলা হয়.

উদাহরণ : বোতল দ্বারা নেশাজাতীয় পানীয়, শাড়ি বা স্কার্ট দ্বারা নারীজাতি,গণভবন দ্বারা রাষ্ট্রপতি, বঙ্গভবন দ্বারা প্রধানমন্ত্রী , ওভাল অফিস দ্বারা ইউএস প্রেসিডেন্টকে বোঝানো ইত্যাদি.

নিম্নরূপ সম্পর্কধারী বিষয় বা বস্তুগুলো পরস্পরের metonym হিসেবে অধিক ব্যবহৃত হয় :

  • symbol or sign for the thing symbolized
  • the instrument or organ for the agent
  • The effect for the cause or the cause for the effect
  • The container for the thing contained
  • the name of a passion for the source /object inspiring it
  • the act for the object of the act
  • the maker for his work ; the place for the production

metonymy সম্পর্কে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কিছু জ্ঞাতব্য: M H Abrams তাঁর বইতে metonymy, synecdoche, personification প্রভৃতিকে metaphor এর বিভিন্ন উপজাত হিসেবে উল্লেখ করলেও, সেটি উনি metaphor এর একটি বৃহৎ অর্থ ও এসমস্ত পরিভাষার প্রতিটির মাঝে ‘তুলনা করার প্রক্রিয়া’র উপস্থিতির বিবেচনায় করেছেন. নইলে এগুলো বর্তমানে Rhetoric এর স্বতন্ত্র উপাদান হিসেবে স্বীকৃত.

Metonymy এবং Synecdoche : Chris Baldick রচিত The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms এ synecdoche কে metonymy এরই একটি প্রকার হিসেবে উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে .

Metonymy এবং Metaphor : metonymy দুটো বস্তু বা বিষয়ের মাঝে ‘সম্পর্ক’/সমন্বয় (contiguity) প্রতিষ্ঠার চেষ্টা করে, যেখানে metaphor দুটো বস্তুর মধ্যে ‘সাদৃশ্য’(similarity) অনুসন্ধান করে.

উচ্চতর দক্ষতার জন্য জ্ঞাতব্য :  modern literary theory তে metonymy কে একটি ব্যাপক অর্থে নিয়ে কোন কিছুকে অপর কিছুর সাথে সম্পর্কযুক্ত করার প্রক্রিয়া, যার মাধ্যমেই metonymy এর উদ্ভব ঘটে সেটি নির্দেশ করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়.

Magic Chart for Tense

আমরা এবার নিয়ে এসেছি ইংরেজি বিভিন্ন tense এর structure আয়ত্ত করার জন্য এক Magic Chart. কেবল এই চার্টটি আয়ত্ত করতে পারলেই বিভিন্ন tense এর structure সমূহের উপর ৯০% দখল চলে আসবে বলে নিশ্চয়তা দেয়া যায়। প্রয়োজন পড়বে না জটিল জটিল structure মুখস্ত করার অথবা বাংলা ক্রিয়ার শেষ বর্ণ মিলিয়ে tense শেখার। আসুন, বারবার চর্চা ও অনুশীলনের মাধ্যমে Magic Chart for Tenseটি আয়ত্ত করে নিই।

চার্টটি ব্যবহার করতে হলে আপনাদের অবশ্যই forms of verbs সম্পর্কে স্পষ্ট ধারণা থাকতে হবে। forms of verbs সম্পর্কে আমাদের পূর্বের পোস্টটি পড়ুন এখানে


চার্টটি ব্যবহারের নিয়ম :

প্রথমেই বলে নিই, চার্টটি active ও passive উভয় voice এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহার করা যাবে।

active voice এর ক্ষেত্রে প্রতিটি বাক্যের নিজ নিজ main verbকে উপরের ছক অনুযায়ী তার জন্য প্রযোজ্য form এ বসাতে হবে। আর main verb হিসেবে যেটাই ব্যবহৃত হোক না কেন, auxiliary verb সর্বদা চার্টে উল্লিখিত verb গুলোর মধ্যেই হবে (Modals ব্যতীত)। আমরা যেই tense এ বাক্য লিখতে আমরা চাইব, সেই tense এর জন্য প্রযোজ্য auxiliary verb উপরোক্ত ছক থেকে খুঁজে নিব। মুখস্ত নয়, বরং এভাবে চর্চা করতে করতে বিষয়টি আয়ত্ত্ব করতে হবে।

passive voice এর ক্ষেত্রে মনে রাখতে হবে সর্বদা passive বাক্যের main verb হল be. উপরোক্ত ছকের সাহায্যে main verb হিসেবে be এর যেই form টি যে tense এ হবে, সেই form বসাতে হবে। আর tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb বসবে। be verb ও have verb এর বিভিন্ন form সম্পর্কে পড়ুন এখানে

বিশেষভাবে মনে রাখতে হবে, বর্তমানে ইংরেজির প্রচলিত ১২ টি tense এর মধ্যে কেবল, ৮ টি tense নিয়মিত ব্যবহৃত হয়। অত্যন্ত কম ব্যবহৃত tense গুলো হল : Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Perfect এবং Future Perfect Continuous tense. অনেক Native Speaker দেশগুলোতে এই tenseগুলো বইপত্রে পড়ানোই হয় না। Native speaker দের মধ্যে বিচিত্র tense ব্যবহারের প্রবণতা তুলনামূলকভাবে কম। কিন্তু আমাদের দেশের পাঠ্যক্রমে এর ব্যাপক গুরুত্ব থাকায় আমাদের জন্য শেখা প্রয়োজন।

অপর একটি স্বল্প আলোচিত tense হল Future in the Past . বেশকিছু Modals (Modal Auxiliary Verbs) বিশিষ্ট বাক্যগুলোকে এই tense ছাড়া ব্যাকরণের আলোকে ভিন্নভাবে বোঝা যায় না। এটিকে প্রচলিত গ্র্যমার বইয়ে একটি স্বতন্ত্র tense হিসেবে আলোচনা করা না হলেও, অন্যান্য tense এর মত এটিরও যথেস্ট গুরুত্ব অ ব্যবহার রয়েছে. এটি সম্পর্কে পড়ুন এখানে

Forms of Verbs [Latest] ‘All in 5’ Chart

Forms of Verbs

Basic Forms of Verbs in English

Forms of Verbs আমরা ছোট থেকেই শিখি , সেজন্য অনেকের কাছে বিষয়টি অবহেলার মনে হতে পারে । বিষয়টি কিন্তু মোটেও অবহেলার নয় , কারণ এটি ভালমত আয়ত্ত করার উপরই নির্ভর করবে আপনার গ্র্যমারের ভবিষ্যত দক্ষতা

ইংরেজি ভাষার আন্তর্জাতিকমানের ব্যাকরণবিশারদগণ (Grammarians) Verb এর ৫ টি form নির্ণয় করেছেন। এর অর্থ হলো, ইংরেজি ভাষায় একটি verb এর মোট ৫ টি চেহারায় দেখা মিলবে. সেই ৫ টি form হল :

1. Base Form

2. Present Form

3. Past Form

4. Present Participle Form

5. Past Participle Form

প্রতিটি form সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত পড়তে ট্যাবগুলোর উপর ক্লিক করুন. form গুলোর তাৎপর্য বোঝার জন্য নিচের উদাহরণগুলো লক্ষ্য করি :

Five Forms of Different Verbs

অনেকের মনে হতে পারে base form হতে present form ভিন্ন কীভাবে হল। এর সহজ উত্তর হচ্ছে infitinitive phrase এ to এর পরে ভার্ব এর base form ব্যবহৃত হয়, present form হয় না। আবার present indefinite tense এর subject যখন 3rd person singular number বিশিষ্ট হয়, তখন verb এর base form ব্যবহৃত হয় না, present form ব্যবহৃত হয়। Dictionary তেও আমরা verb গুলোকে base form এর এন্ট্রিতে পাই। Base form এবং present form এর মাঝে মিল থাকলেও দুটি form সম্পূর্ণ আলদা ব্যাকরণ মেনে চলে। এটি আমাদের দেশের ছাত্রদের জন্য বোঝা খুবই জরুরি এজন্য যে, আমরা বাজারের দেশী লেখকদের প্রচলিত বই পড়ে base form আর present form কে একই মনে করে থাকি, যা native English grammarianদের লিখিত বা আন্তর্জাতিকমানের ইংরেজি ব্যাকরণ বইগুলো হতে সম্পূর্ণ ভিন্ন। আমরা পৃষ্ঠার শেষে কিছু রেফারেন্স উল্লেখ করব।

এবার চলুন এই form গুলোর বিশেষ প্রয়োগের কয়েকটি উদাহরণ দেখি:

He has to have the work done.

এই বাক্যের subject হচ্ছে he, কিন্তু বাক্যে verb হিসেবে প্রথমবার has এবং পরে have এসেছে. কেন এরকম হল ? কারণ এই যে, প্রথম verbটি বাক্যের main এবং একমাত্র finite verb : বাক্যটি present indefinite tense এ থাকায় সেজন্য have ভার্বটির present form বসবে. ছক থেকে দেখি verb টির present form হল have/has. এদুটির মধ্য় হতে যেটি subject (he) এর number এবং person এর সাথে যায়, সেটি (has) বসবে। পক্ষান্তরে, পরের ভার্বটি বাক্যের non-finite verb, যেটি infinitive phrase এ ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে। Infinitive phrase এর গঠন হল to+base form of verb, সেজন্য দ্বিতীয়বার have বসেছে, যা verb টির base form. যারা base form এবং present form এর মধ্যে পার্থক্য জানেন না, তাদের জন্য বিষয়টি নির্ণয় করা বেশ ঘোলাটে হয়। আবার, যদি বাক্যটির subject ই হত , তবে main verb এর ক্ষেত্রেও have ব্যবহৃত হত। সেক্ষেত্রে বাক্যটি হত : I have to have the work done.

Base form আর present form এর মধ্যে সবচে স্পষ্ট পার্থক্য দেখা যায় be verb এর বিভিন্ন ফর্মের ক্ষেত্রে। একটি বাক্য লক্ষ্য করি : He is to be an engineer. বাক্যটির প্রথম verb হল main verb, ‘be‘, এবং দ্বিতীয় verbটিও non-finite verb, ‘be‘. প্রথমক্ষেত্রে be এর present form, ‘is’, ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে, কিন্তু পরবর্তিতে base form হিসেবে be ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।

বিশেষ জ্ঞাতব্য : অনেক বিখ্যাত grammarian এর মতে verb forms মোট ৬ টি। উনারা passive form কে একটি স্বতন্ত্র form হিসেবে উল্লেখ করেছেন। আমরা যেই মতটি অনুসরণ করেছি, সেটি অনুযায়ী passive verb বিশিষ্ট বাক্যগুলো প্রকৃতপক্ষে Linking verb বিশিষ্ট বাক্য – যেখানে be হচ্ছে main verb এবং পরবর্তী past participle form বিশিষ্ট verbটি বাক্যের Complement. এসম্পর্কে passive verb অধ্যায়ে বিস্তারিত আলোচনা আসবে।

**References :

  • Oxford A-Z English Grammar – John Seely
  • Practical English Grammar – Michael Swan
  • An Oxford Guide to English Grammar – John Eastwood
  • The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar – Bas Arts, Sylvia Chalker, Edmund Weiner
  • The Pocket Guide to English Language – John o` Connor
  • English Grammar-Geoffrey Leech
  • A Practical English Grammar Exercises 2 – A.J. Thomson
  • A Practaical English Grammar Exercies 1 – A.V. Martinet
  • A English Grammar of the English Language – Sidney Greenbaum
  • A University Grammar of English – Randolph Quirk
  • A University Course in English Grammar – Angela Downing
  • ABC of English Grammar – Jahurul Islam
  • Learning English The Easy Way – Sadruddin Ahmed
Look for Forms of Verbs in the Dictionary
The word ‘verb’ in the dictionary